Targeting heat shock proteins in cancer.

INSERM U866, 7, Boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, 21033 Dijon, France; University of Burgundy, Esplanade Erasme, 21078 Dijon, France.
Cancer letters (Impact Factor: 5.02). 11/2010; DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2010.10.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 are powerful chaperones. Their expression is induced in response to a wide variety of physiological and environmental insults including anti-cancer chemotherapy, thus allowing the cell to survive to lethal conditions. Different functions of HSPs have been described to account for their cytoprotective function, including their role as molecular chaperones as they play a central role in the correct folding of misfolded proteins, but also their anti-apoptotic properties. HSPs are often overexpressed in cancer cells and this constitutive expression is necessary for cancer cells' survival. HSPs may have oncogene-like functions and likewise mediate "non-oncogene addiction" of stressed tumor cells that must adapt to a hostile microenvironment, thereby becoming dependent for their survival on HSPs. HSP-targeting drugs have therefore emerged as potential anti-cancer agents. This review describes the different molecules and approaches being used or proposed in cancer therapy based on the in inhibition of HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27.

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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are induced by heat shock via heat shock factor proteins binding to heat shock elements in their promoters. Hsp70 is massively induced in response to misfolded proteins following cerebral ischemia in all cell types but is induced mainly in neurons in the ischemic penumbra. Overexpression of Hsp70 via transgenes and viruses or systemic administration of Hsp70 fusion proteins that allow it to cross the blood brain barrier protects the brain against ischemia in most reported studies. Hsp27 can exist as unphosphorylated large oligomers that prevent misfolded protein aggregates and improve cell survival. P-Hsp27 small oligomers bind specific protein targets to improve survival. In the brain, protein kinase D phosphorylates Hsp27 following ischemia which then binds apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 to prevent MKK4/7, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and Jun-induced apoptosis, and decrease infarct volumes following focal cerebral ischemia. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to carbon monoxide, ferrous ion, and biliverdin. CO activates cGMP to promote vasodilation, and biliverdin is converted to bilirubin which can serve as an anti-oxidant, both of which may contribute to the reported protective role of HO-1 in cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, ferrous ion can react with hydrogen peroxide to produce pro-oxidant hydroxyl radicals which may explain the harmful role of HO-1 in intracerebral hemorrhage. Heat shock proteins as a class have great potential as treatments for cerebrovascular disease and have yet to be tested in the clinic.
    Translational Stroke Research 12/2013; 4(6):685-92.
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    ABSTRACT: The present studies aimed to understand the interrelationships between stress, hormones and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the ovary. We examined (1) whether HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105/110 can be produced and accumulated in porcine ovarian tissue, (2) whether these HSPs could be indicators of stress, i.e. whether two kinds of stress (high temperatures and malnutrition/serum deprivation) can affect them, and (3) whether some hormonal regulators of ovarian functions (insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, leptin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) can affect these HSPs and response of ovaries to HSP-related stress. We analysed the expression of HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105/110 mRNA (by using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) in porcine ovarian granulosa cells, as well as the accumulation of HSP70 protein (by using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-Western) in either whole ovarian follicles and granulose cells cultured at normal (37.5°C) or high (41.5°C) temperature, with and without serum and with and without IGF-I, leptin and FSH. Expression of mRNA for HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105/110 in ovarian granulosa cells and accumulation of HSP70 protein in whole ovarian follicles and granulosa cells were demonstrated. In all the groups, addition of either IGF-I, leptin and FSH reduced the expression of HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105/110 mRNA. Both high temperature, serum deprivation and their combination resulted in increase in mRNAs for all three analysed HSPs. Additions of either IGF-I, leptin and FSH prevented the stimulatory effect of both high temperature and serum deprivation on the transcription of HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105/110. In contrast, high temperature reduced accumulation of peptide HSP70 in both ovarian follicles and granulosa cell. Serum deprivation promoted accumulation of HSP70 in granulosa cells, but not in ovarian follicles. Addition of IGF-I, leptin and FSH was able to alter accumulation of HSP70 in both follicles and granulosa cells. The present observations suggest (1) that HSPs can be synthesised in ovarian follicular granulosa cells; (2) that hormones (IGF-I, leptin and FSH) can inhibit, whilst stressors (both high temperature and malnutrition/serum deprivation) can stimulate transcription of HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105/110 genes, whilst heat stress, but not malnutrition, can promote depletion of HSP70 in ovarian cells, and (3) that hormones (IGF-I, leptin and FSH) can prevent stress-related changes in HSPs. The application of HSPs as indicators and mediators of stress and hormones on ovarian functions, as well as use of hormones and HSPs as anti-stressor molecules, are discussed.
    Cell Stress and Chaperones 12/2010; 16(4):379-87. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) is increased in various cancers and has been shown to correlate with biological tumor behaviour. This study aimed to investigate the impact of HSP70, HSP60 and HSP27 expression in colon cancer. HSP expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray with 355 primary resected colon carcinomas of all stages. Expression patterns were correlated with pathologic features (UICC pTNM category, tumor grading) and survival. Expression of HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70 ranged from negative to high. There was no correlation between HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70 expression among each other and with UICC pT category, presence of lymph node or distant metastases or tumor grading. High HSP70 expression was associated with worse overall survival (p < 0.001) and was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.004) in multivariate analysis including the pathological parameters mentioned above. For patients without lymph node or distant metastases (UICC stages I/II) and with complete tumor excision, HSP70 expression was the only independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.001) and superior to UICC pT category. In left sided UICC stage I/II carcinomas, high HSP27 expression also had adverse prognostic impact and was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.016) besides HSP70 (p = 0.002). High HSP70 and HSP27 expression is associated with worse clinical outcome in colon cancer. Determination of tumoral HSP70 and HSP27 may be used as additional biomarker for risk stratification especially for UICC stage I/II patients.
    Cellular oncology (Dordrecht). 04/2012; 35(3):197-205.


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Jun 27, 2014

Adonis Hazoumé