Association between aortic calcification and stable obstructive coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is correlated with aortic calcification (AC) and predicts coronary atherosclerosis as well as obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD). This study aims to investigate whether AC predicts OCAD independent of CAC and its incremental value in predicting OCAD with CAC.
Among the consecutive patients who underwent 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT), we enrolled 120 stable OCAD (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%) patients and 120 controls without OCAD, matched for cardiovascular risk factors. CAC, thoracic AC, and OCAD were determined by MDCT.
The prevalence of AC and CAC were significantly higher in OCAD patients than in controls (64% vs. 48%, p = 0.019; 57% vs. 32%, p < 0.001, respectively). There is a significant correlation between AC and CAC scores in the overall study population (r = 0.528, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) of AC and CAC in predicting OCAD were 1.91 (95% CI, 1.14-3.21) and 2.82 (95% CI, 1.67-4.78), respectively. When an adjustment was made for each other, AC did not maintain a significant association with OCAD, whereas CAC persisted the association (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.42-4.47). Both AC and CAC present as compared to both absent was found to be a more potent predictor for OCAD (OR, 3.37; 95% CI 1.78-6.36, p < 0.001) than CAC alone.
The presence of AC was associated with stable OCAD independently from cardiovascular risk factors, but the association seemed to be based on the close correlation between AC and CAC. However, AC might have an incremental value with CAC for predicting OCAD.
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is the primary underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world today and is set to become the prevailing disease and major cause of death worldwide by 2020. In the 1950s surgical intervention was introduced to treat symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis - a procedure known as carotid endarterectomy (CEA). By removing the atherosclerotic plaque from the affected carotid artery of these patients, CEA is beneficial by preventing subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke. However, it is known that patients with low to intermediate artery stenosis may still experience ischemic events, leading clinicians to consider plaque composition as an important feature of atherosclerosis. Today molecular imaging can be used for characterization, visualization and quantification of cellular and subcellular physiological processes as they take place in vivo; using this technology we can obtain valuable information on atherosclerostic plaque composition. Applying molecular imaging clinically to atherosclerotic disease therefore has the potential to identify atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable to rupture. This could prove to be an important tool for the selection of patients for CEA surgery in a health system increasingly focused on individualized treatment. This review focuses on current advances and future developments of in vivo atherosclerosis PET imaging in man.Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 12/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The association between atherosclerosis in the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) visualized on computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been extensively explored. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of DTA atherosclerosis on CTA was performed and the association of DTA atherosclerosis with CAD was evaluated in patients with suspected CAD. A total of 344 patients (54 ± 12 years, 54 % men) with suspected CAD underwent CTA. CTA were classified based on CAD severity in no signs of atherosclerosis or minor wall-irregularities <30 %, non-significant CAD 30-50 %, or significant CAD ≥50 % stenosis. The DTA was divided in segments according the posterior intercostal arteries. Per segment the presence of atherosclerotic plaque (defined as ≥2 mm wall thickness) was determined and maximal wall thickness was measured. Plaque composition was scored as non-calcified or mixed and the percentage of DTA segments with atherosclerosis was calculated. Significant CAD was present in 152 (44 %) patients and 278 (81 %) had DTA atherosclerotic plaque. DTA maximal wall thickness and percentage of DTA segments with atherosclerosis were 2.7 ± 1 mm and 49 ± 36 %. The presence, severity and extent of DTA atherosclerosis significantly increased with increasing CAD severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis corrected for age and other risk factors demonstrated independent associations of DTA plaque (OR 6.56, 95 % CI 1.78-24.19, p = 0.005) and maximal DTA wall thickness (OR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.28-3.12, p = 0.002) with significant CAD. The presence and severity of DTA atherosclerosis were independently related with significant CAD on CTA in patients with suspected CAD.The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 07/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aortic knob calcification (AC) is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. We evaluated the clinical importance of AC in ischemic stroke patients with intracranial (IC) stenosis using simple, non-invasive and routine chest radiography. The presence of AC was assessed in a chest posteroanterior view in 307 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted from May 2009 to April 2010, and who underwent magnetic resonance angiography or distal subtraction angiography. The association of AC with IC stenosis was analyzed. Patient age (68.3±8.7 vs. 65.9±8.27 years, P=0.04), and the prevalence of IC stenosis (70.7 vs. 41.3%, P<0.01) were higher in patients with AC than in patients without calcification. After adjusting for age, gender and vascular risk factors, logistic regression analysis showed that AC (Odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.90 to 6.61, P<0.01) and age (Odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 3.19; P=0.04) were independent factors affecting IC stenosis. AC appears to be a reliable predictor for IC stenosis, an important mechanism of ischemic stroke.Journal of stroke. 05/2013; 15(2):122-125.