GRAIL: a unique mediator of CD4 T-lymphocyte unresponsiveness.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
FEBS Journal (Impact Factor: 3.99). 10/2010; 278(1):47-58. DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07922.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes, also known as RNF128), an ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3), utilizes a unique single transmembrane protein with a split-function motif, and is an important gatekeeper of T-cell unresponsiveness. Although it may play a role in other CD4 T-cell functions including activation, survival and differentiation, GRAIL is most well characterized as a negative regulator of T-cell receptor responsiveness and cytokine production. Here, we review the recent literature on this remarkable E3 in the regulation of human and mouse CD4 T-cell unresponsiveness.

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