ADULT Syndrome Caused by a Mutation Previously Associated with EEC Syndrome

Department of Dermatology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.
Pediatric Dermatology (Impact Factor: 1.02). 11/2010; 27(6):643-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2010.01131.x
Source: PubMed


Acro-Dermato-Ungual-Lacrimal-Tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by ectrodactyly or syndactyly, excessive freckling and dry skin, dysplastic nails, lacrimal duct atresia, primary hypodontia and early loss of permanent teeth. ADULT syndrome is one of five such syndromes that result from mutations in TP63, encoding the transcription factor p63. Until now, only four families and three individuals with ADULT syndrome have been reported in the English literature. We present a 14-year-old female patient with ADULT syndrome and discuss phenotype-genotype correlations in the p63 syndromes.

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    ABSTRACT: Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare condition belonging to the group of ectodermal dysplasias caused by TP63 mutations. Its clinical phenotype is similar to ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) and limb-mammary syndrome (LMS), and differs from these disorders mainly by the absence of cleft lip and/or palate. We report on a 39-year-old patient who was found to be heterozygous for a c.401G > T (p.Gly134Val) de novo mutation of TP63. This patient had the ADULT phenotype associated with cleft palate. Our findings, rather than extend the clinical spectrum of ADULT syndrome, suggest that cleft palate can no longer be considered an element for differential diagnosis for ADULT, EEC, and LMS. Our data, added to other reports on overlapping phenotypes, support the combining of these three phenotypes into a unique entity that we propose to call "ELA syndrome," which is an acronym of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate, limb-mammary, and ADULT syndromes.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2011; 155A(11):2746-9. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.34270 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant form of ectodermal dysplasia due to TP63 mutations. ADULT syndrome is much less common than the more classical forms of TP63-associated ectodermal dysplasias, such as ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome and ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome. ADULT syndrome is characterized by ectrodactyly, syndactyly, and excessive freckling, in addition to more typical ectodermal defects, including hypodontia, lacrimal duct anomalies, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Unlike some of the other TP63-associated ectodermal dysplasias, ADULT syndrome lacks clefting and ankyloblepharon. Here, we report a three-generation family with ADULT syndrome due to an R243W mutation in TP63, a mutation that has previously been described in one patient with ADULT syndrome and eight unrelated patients with EEC syndrome.
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    ABSTRACT: TP63 germ-line mutations are responsible for a group of human ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, underlining the key role of P63 in the development of ectoderm-derived tissues. Here we report the identification of two TP63 alleles, G134V (p.Gly173Val) and insR155 (p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg), associated to ADULT and EEC syndromes, respectively. These alleles, along with previously identified G134D (p.Gly173Asp) and R204W (p.Arg243Trp), were functionally characterized in yeast, studied in a mammalian cell line and modelled based on the crystal structure of the P63 DNA-binding domain. While the p.Arg243Trp mutant showed both complete loss of transactivation function and ability to interfere over wild type P63, the impact of p.Gly173Asp, p.Gly173Val and p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg varied depending on the Response Element (RE) tested. Interestingly, p.Gly173Asp and p.Gly173Val mutants were characterized by a severe defect in transactivation along with interfering ability on two DN-P63α-specific REs derived from genes closely related to the clinical manifestations of the TP63-associated syndromes, namely PERP and COL18A1. The modelling of the mutations supported the distinct functional effect of each mutant. The present results highlight the importance of integrating different functional endpoints that take in account the features of P63 proteins' target sequences to examine the impact of TP63 mutations and the associated clinical variability.
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