Homocysteine induces oxidative-nitrative stress in heart of rats: prevention by folic acid.
ABSTRACT Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and thrombosis; however, the mechanisms by which homocysteine triggers these dysfunctions are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic hyperhomocysteinemia on some parameters of oxidative stress, namely thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an index of lipid peroxidation, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (H(2)DCF) oxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes named superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as nitrite levels in heart of young rats. We also evaluated the effect of folic acid on biochemical alterations elicited by hyperhomocysteinemia. Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injection of homocysteine (0.3-0.6 μmol/g body weight) and/or folic acid (0.011 μmol/g body weight) from their 6th to the 28th day of life. Controls and treated rats were killed 1 h and/or 12 h after the last injection. Results showed that chronic homocysteine administration increases lipid peroxidation and reactive species production and decreases enzymatic antioxidant defenses and nitrite levels in the heart of young rats killed 1 h, but not 12 h after the last injection of homocysteine. Folic acid concurrent administration prevented homocysteine effects probable by its antioxidant properties. Our data indicate that oxidative stress is elicited by chronic hyperhomocystenemia, a mechanism that may contribute, at least in part, to the cardiovascular alterations characteristic of hyperhomocysteinemic patients. If confirmed in human beings, our results could propose that the supplementation of folic acid can be used as an adjuvant therapy in cardiovascular alterations caused by homocysteine.
- SourceAvailable from: stroke.ahajournals.orgStroke 03/2004; 35(2):345-7. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although hyperhomocysteinemia has been recognized recently as a prevalent risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke, the mechanisms by which it accelerates arteriosclerosis have not been elucidated, mostly because the biological effects of homocysteine can only be demonstrated at very high concentrations and can be mimicked by cysteine, which indicates a lack of specificity. We found that 10-50 microM of homocysteine (a range that overlaps levels observed clinically) but not cysteine inhibited DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) and arrested their growth at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Homocysteine in this same range had no effect on the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) or fibroblasts. Homocysteine decreased carboxyl methylation of p21(ras) (a G1 regulator whose activity is regulated by prenylation and methylation in addition to GTP-GDP exchange) by 50% in VEC but not VSMC, a difference that may be explained by the ability of homocysteine to dramatically increase levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine, a potent inhibitor of methyltransferase, in VEC but not VSMC. Moreover, homocysteine-induced hypomethylation in VEC was associated with a 66% reduction in membrane-associated p21(ras) and a 67% reduction in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which is a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. Because the MAP kinases have been implicated in cell growth, the p21(ras)-MAP kinase pathway may represent one of the mechanisms that mediates homocysteine's effect on VEC growth. VEC damage is a hallmark of arteriosclerosis. Homocysteine-induced inhibition of VEC growth may play an important role in this disease process.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1997; 272(40):25380-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- 07/2009; 58(4):725-725.