CD11c-expressing cells reside in the juxtavascular parenchyma and extend processes into the glia limitans of the mouse nervous system.
ABSTRACT Recent studies demonstrated that primary immune responses can be induced within the brain depending on vessel-associated cells expressing markers of dendritic cells (DC). Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c, we determined the distribution, phenotype, and source of CD11c+ cells in non-diseased brains. Predilection areas of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions (periventricular area, adjacent fibre tracts, and optical nerve) were preferentially populated by CD11c+ cells. Most CD11c+ cells were located within the juxtavascular parenchyma rather than the perivascular spaces. Virtually all CD11c+ cells co-expressed ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1), CD11b, while detectable levels of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) in non-diseased mice was restricted to CD11c+ cells of the choroid plexus. Cellular processes project into the glia limitans which may allow transport and/or presentation of intraparenchymal antigens to extravasated T cells in perivascular spaces. In chimeric mice bearing CD11c-GFP bone marrow, fluorescent cells appeared in the CNS between 8 and 12 weeks after transplantation. In organotypic slice cultures from CD11c-GFP mice, the number of fluorescent cells strongly increased within 72 h. Strikingly, using anti-CD209, an established marker for human DC, a similar population was detected in human brains. Thus, we show for the first time that CD11c+ cells can not only be recruited from the blood into the parenchyma, but also develop from an intraneural precursor in situ. Dysbalance in their recruitment/development may be an initial step in the pathogenesis of chronic (autoimmune) neuroinflammatory diseases such as MS.
SourceAvailable from: Franziska Menzel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. GLIA 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Glia 12/2014; 63(4). DOI:10.1002/glia.22771 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 10/2014; 27(4):691-726. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00118-13 · 16.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggests that CNS-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for restimulation of coinfiltrating T cells. Here we systematically quantified and visualized the distribution and interaction of CNS DCs and T cells during EAE. We report marked periventricular accumulation of DCs and myelin-specific T cells during EAE disease onset prior to accumulation in the spinal cord, indicating that the choroid plexus-CSF axis is a CNS entry portal. Moreover, despite emphasis on spinal cord inflammation in EAE and in correspondence with MS pathology, inflammatory lesions containing interacting DCs and T cells are present in specific brain regions.Journal of Neuroimmunology 09/2014; 277(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.09.016 · 2.79 Impact Factor