To determine if hyperglycemia in postoperative orthopaedic trauma patients with no known history of diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased rate of infectious complications.
University Level I trauma center.
One hundred ten consecutive orthopaedic trauma patients,
Perioperative pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, or wound infection.
Patients were divided into two subgroups based on mean serum glucose greater than 220 mg/dL (hyperglycemic index [HGI] 3.0 or greater). The incidence of infections was calculated for the following factors: age, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Score, body mass index, HGI, sex, transfusions, tobacco use, and presence of open fracture. Means were compared using two-sample t tests (with or without adjustment for unequal variances as necessary), and percentages were compared using either chi square or Fisher exact tests. If the data were not normally distributed or measured on the ordinal scale, then the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed with the presence or absence of an infection as the dependent variable. A two-tailed P value < 0.05 was considered significant. SAS, Version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC), was used for all analyses.
Forty-six infections occurred in 28 patients, including 11 wound infections, 17 pneumonia, 11 urinary tract infections, and seven sepsis or bacteremia. The overall infection rate for the study cohort was 28 of 110 (25%). No significant associations were identified among age, comorbidities, transfusions, tobacco use, open fracture, sex, body mass index, Injury Severity Score, and the presence of any infection. Ninety nine patients had an HGI less than 3.0 and 21 (21%) of these had a perioperative infection. Eleven patients had an HGI 3.0 or greater and seven (64%) of these had a perioperative infection. This difference was significant (P = 0.0056).
Mean perioperative glucose levels greater than 220 mg/dL (HGI greater than 3.0) were associated with a seven times higher risk of infection in orthopaedic trauma patients with no known history of diabetes mellitus. Further prospective studies are needed to study the effects of stress-induced hyperglycemia and to determine whether this physiological response is protective or detrimental to the postoperative trauma patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative sepsis is a major cause of surgical associated morbidity and mortality. Our goal is to describe its incidence, pathophysiology, and contributing factors. In addition, we will review preventive measures and treatment options that may possibly reduce its healthcare burden.
We review epidemiologic data and clinical tools presented in multiple current studies, which may help lower incidence and improve outcome of postoperative sepsis.
The incidence of postoperative sepsis has not declined over the past years, although mortality is trending downwards. Several biochemical and genetic markers may allow early diagnosis. Prevention and prompt treatment may lower mortality.
Current opinion in critical care 06/2011; 17(4):396-401. DOI:10.1097/MCC.0b013e328348bee2 · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some nondiabetic trauma patients with hyperglycemia have been found to have occult diabetes mellitus (ODM). We studied whether glycated albumin (GA) was an effective tool for detecting ODM in orthopedic trauma patients with elevated glucose levels.
A cross-sectional, sequential case series study of adult patients presenting to the Orthopedic Trauma Center between September 2009 and March 2010 with new limb fractures was performed. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and GA levels were measured in hyperglycemic patients with no prior diabetes mellitus. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted to examine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of GA in identifying occult diabetes in hospitalized patients with acute hyperglycemia.
A total of 2,058 trauma patients were screened and 399 patients (19.4%) with no known diabetes mellitus were noted to be hyperglycemic. Of these 399 patients, 38.3% (n = 153) had ODM according to the HbA1c diagnosis cutoff point. GA level was strongly correlated with HbA1c using Pearson's correlation analysis (r = 0.887, p < 0.01). Using logistic regression analysis, GA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60, p < 0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.974, p < 0.001) were identified as significant risk factors for the diagnosis of ODM. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a GA value of 17.5% gave an optimal sensitivity of 73.20% and specificity of 99.12% for distinguishing ODM from stress-induced hyperglycemia.
Almost 40% of nondiabetic orthopedic trauma patients presenting with hyperglycemia were found to have ODM. A GA value of 17.5%, the optimal cutoff point, could distinguish between ODM and stress-induced hyperglycemia in Chinese orthopedic trauma subjects.
II, diagnostic study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the possible reasons and suggest therapeutic plan of stress-induced intestinal necrosis resulting from the severe trauma.
Three patients in our study were trapped inside collapsed structures for 22, 21 and 37 h, respectively. The patients underwent 3-4 operations after sustaining their injuries. Mechanical ventilation, intermittent hemodialysis and other treatments were also provided. The patients showed signs of peritoneal irritation on postoperative days 10-38. Small intestinal necrosis was confirmed by emergency laparotomy, and for each patient, part of the small bowel was removed.
Two patients who all performed 3 operations died of respiratory complications on the first and second postoperative days respectively. The third patient who performed 4 operations was discharged and made a full recovery. Three patients had the following common characteristics: (1) Multiple severe trauma events with no direct penetrating gastrointestinal injury; (2) Multiple surgeries with impaired renal function and intermittent hemodialysis treatment; (3) Progressive abdominal pain and tenderness, and peritoneal irritation was present on post-traumatic days 10-38; (4) Abdominal operations confirmed segment ulcer, necrosis of the small intestine, hyperplasia and stiffness of the intestinal wall; and (5) Pathological examinations suggested submucosal hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis and hyalinization of the vascular wall. Pathological examinations of all 3 patients suggested intestinal necrosis with fistulas.
Intestinal necrosis is strongly associated with stress from trauma and post-traumatic complications; timely exploratory laparotomy maybe an effective method for preventing and treating stress-induced intestinal necrosis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2012; 18(17):2127-31. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i17.2127 · 2.37 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.