Stem cell integrins: implications for ex-vivo culture and cellular therapies.
ABSTRACT Use of stem cells, whether adult or embryonic for clinical applications to treat diseases such as Parkinson's, macular degeneration or Type I diabetes will require a homogenous population of mature, terminally differentiated cells. A current area of intense interest is the development of defined surfaces for stem cell derivation, maintenance, proliferation and subsequent differentiation, which are capable of replicating the complex cellular environment existing in vivo. During development many cellular cues result from integrin signalling induced by the local extracellular matrix. There are 24 known integrin heterodimers comprised of one of 18 α subunits and one of 8 β subunits and these have a diverse range of functions mediating cell-cell adhesion, growth factor receptor responses and intracellular signalling cascades for cell migration, differentiation, survival and proliferation. We discuss here a brief summary of defined conditions for human embryonic stem cell culture together with a description of integrin function and signalling pathways. The importance of integrin expression during development is highlighted as critical for lineage specific cell function and how consideration of the integrin expression profile should be made while differentiating stem cells for use in therapy. In addition this review summarises the known integrin expression profiles for human embryonic stem cells and 3 common adult stem cell types: mesenchymal, haematopoietic and neural. We then outline some of the possible technologies available for investigating cell-extracellular matrix interactions and subsequent integrin mediated cell responses.
Article: αV integrin induces multicellular radioresistance in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma via activating SAPK/JNK pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor cells acquire the capacity of resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy via cell-matrix and cell-cell crosstalk. Integrins are the most important cell adhesion molecules, in which αV integrin mainly mediating the tight contact between tumor cells. To investigate the role of αV integrin in multi-cellular radioresistance (MCR) of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we performed immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to find that the expression of αV integrin in the tumor tissue of radioresistant patients is much higher than that in radiosensitive patients. In vitro, we cultured human NPC cell line CNE-2 cells as multi-cellular spheroids (MCSs) or as monolayer cells (MCs), and found that the expression of αV integrin in MCSs is significantly higher than that in MCs. MTT, flow cytometry and clonogenic survival assays showed that MCSs are less sensitive to X-ray irradiation than MCs while blocking of αV integrin in MCSs dramatically reversed their radioresistance. Furthermore, as detected by Western blotting, MCSs displayed sustained activation of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathway in presence of irradiation. Blocking of αV integrin in MCSs decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK. Additionally, blocking of SAPK/JNK signaling pathway synergistically induced apoptosis of MCSs exposed to irradiation by increasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3. In vivo, we found that irradiation combined with αV integrin blocking treatment significantly enhanced the radiosensitivity of NPC xenografts. Our results indicate a novel role of αV integrin in multi-cellular radioresistance of NPCs.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38737. · 4.09 Impact Factor