Article

Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

Neuroimaging Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA.
Progress in brain research (Impact Factor: 4.19). 01/2010; 185:105-29. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00007-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation affects a particular cognitive process may depend on several factors, including the magnitude of global decline in general alertness and attention, the degree to which the specific cognitive function depends on emotion-processing networks, and the extent to which that cognitive process can draw upon associated cortical regions for compensatory support.

8 Bookmarks
 · 
3,102 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task.
    Biological Psychology 11/2014; · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic sleep restriction and acute total sleep loss are highly prevalent in the modern ‘24/7 society’ and pose significant risks for quality of life, mental wellbeing, cognitive performance and physical health. The consequences of acute and chronic sleep deprivation have become a public health concern. Based on the catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine, this chapter focuses on the effects of sleep deprivation on emotional state, mood, cognition, physical health and immune functions. We review the effect sizes of these different consequences of lack of sleep and provide insights into possible neuroanatomical and (neuro) physiological underpinnings of how insufficient sleep could impact upon these health outcomes. A better understanding of these relationships is important, because the avoidance of short and inadequate sleep may be amenable to modification and help to save increasingly high social, financial and health-related costs for the affected individuals and for society.
    ESRS European Sleep Medicine Textbook, 1 edited by Claudio L. Bassetti, Zoran Dogaš, Philippe Peigneux, 11/2014: chapter 5: pages 49-62; European Sleep Research Society., ISBN: 9781119038931
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a chronic, highly prevalent, multisystem disease, which is still largely underdiagnosed. Its most prominent risk factors, obesity and older age, are on the rise, and its prevalence is expected to grow further. The last few years have seen an exponential increase in studies to determine the impact of OSA on the central nervous system. OSA-induced brain injury is now a recognized clinical entity, although its possible dual relationship with several other neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders is debated. The putative neuromechanisms behind some of the effects of OSA on the central nervous system are discussed in this review, focusing on the nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation.
    Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 09/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
1,237 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014