Article

Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition

Neuroimaging Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA.
Progress in brain research (Impact Factor: 5.1). 01/2010; 185:105-29. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00007-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation affects a particular cognitive process may depend on several factors, including the magnitude of global decline in general alertness and attention, the degree to which the specific cognitive function depends on emotion-processing networks, and the extent to which that cognitive process can draw upon associated cortical regions for compensatory support.

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Available from: William D. S. Killgore, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "Moreover, similar to findings in individuals with mood disorders, these sleep loss-associated impairments appear in spite of blunted affect (Talbot et al., 2010), impaired recognition of human emotions (Van Der Helm et al., 2010) and decreased emotional expressiveness (Minkel et al., 2011). An increased negative cognitive bias as a result of poor sleep quality is also likely, as emotion processing after sleep loss appears to be disinhibited, with increased sensitivity to emotional stimuli and increased 'moodiness' such as increased irritability, anger and hostility (Durmer and Dinges, 2005; Killgore, 2010; McCoy and Strecker, 2011; Taylor et al., 2013; Tsuchiyama et al., 2013). This is unlike sleep disturbance changes in cognitive processing such as attention and memory, where there is an obvious decrease in performance after sleep loss. "
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    Journal of Sleep Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/jsr.12302 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Of note, these previous studies used performance on various WM tasks to estimate the cognitive decline following SD, which may have been influenced by a learning effect from repeated administrations and intrinsic difference in aptitude (Van Dongen, 2005). In the current study, we employed the " gold standard " PVT, which provides a highly reliable and sensitive metric of the effects of SD on cognition and which exhibits neither a practice effect nor aptitude differences (Killgore, 2010; Van Dongen, 2005). "
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    • "However , following 49 and 75 h of prolonged wake - fulness , study participants showed a significant decline in performance . Specifically , they became progressively more risk - taking and short - sighted in decision - making , tending to prefer risky short - term gains at the expense of incurring long - term losses ( Killgore , 2010 ) . Such findings are in line with evidence that damage to the vmPFC leads to shortsighted - ness for the future , as well as neuroimaging data that indicate that this brain region plays a key role in the decision - making process of the IGT . "
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