The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba (Combretaceae) prevents glucose-induced hypertension in rats

Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Yaoundé I, PO Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.94). 11/2010; 133(2):828-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The stem bark of Terminalia superba (Combretaceae) (TS) is used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antihypertensive remedy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypotensive and the antihypertensive effects of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba.
Hypertension was obtained in rats by oral administration of 10% D-glucose for 3 weeks. The acute effects of Terminalia superba were studied on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) after intravenous administration in normotensive rats (NTR) and glucose hypertensive rats (GHR). The antihypertensive effects were studied after oral administration of the extract (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, BP and HR were measured and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were measured in heart, aorta, liver and kidney.
Intravenous administration of the aqueous extract of Terminalia superba induced a significant hypotensive response without any change in HR. The hypotensive effect of the extract was unaffected by atropine or propranolol but decreased by reserpine (5 mg/kg) and yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg). In addition, the oral administration of the extract significantly prevented the rise in BP in glucose-hypertensive rats. Finally, the treatment with plant extract significantly blunted the decrease in GSH and the increase in MDA levels associated with hypertension, and significantly prevents the increase in aortic SOD activity.
The present study demonstrates that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba exhibits hypotensive and anti-hypertensive properties that are, at least in part, related to a withdrawal of sympathetic tone and to an improvement of the antioxidant status, respectively. Overall data validate the use of Terminalia superba as antihypertensive therapy in traditional medicine.


Available from: Corine Girard-Thernier, May 30, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.
    BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:261745. DOI:10.1155/2014/261745 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The stem bark of Terminalia superba (TS) is widely used as a decoction by Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a chronic treatment with a TS extract on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with respect to efficacy, biochemical mechanisms and safety. Eleven-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were daily treated by gavage with a methylene chloride extract of stem bark of Terminalia superba (TMSE, 150mg/kg) or with the vehicle for 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. At the end of the treatment period, vascular function was assessed on isolated thoracic rings, urinary 8-iso-PGF2α levels were measured and cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP 3A) activity was evaluated in liver microsomes. TMSE reduced SBP (P<0.001) in SHR but not in WKY rats. In SHR, the vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine was significantly improved by TMSE as a result of increased nitric oxide synthase (NO) activity and decreased superoxide anion production. In addition, TMSE reduced the vasoconstrictive effect of phenylephrine and improved the sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to NO. TMSE dramatically decreased 8-iso-PGF2α levels in SHR. By contrast, TMSE did not affect all these parameters in WKY rats. Neither diuresis nor the hepatic CYP 3A activity was modified in both animal groups. This study demonstrated that Terminalia superba has a potent antihypertensive activity in SHR which is partly due to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent effects as well as decreased oxidative stress. The data also provide evidence for the lack of herb-drug interaction through hepatic CYP 3A.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; 151(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.057 · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25mg/kg/day, 50mg/kg/day or 100mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of K. pinnata at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32, 24 and 47% (for SAP); 35, 33 and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of K. pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity. The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of K. pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This antihypertensive activity is associated with an improvement of antioxidant status. Overall, results justify and support the use of K. pinnata as antihypertensive medicine.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.041 · 2.94 Impact Factor