beta-Arrestin: A signaling molecule and potential therapeutic target for heart failure
ABSTRACT Currently, some of the most effective treatments for heart failure target GPCRs such as the beta-adrenergic receptors (β1AR and β2AR) and angiotensin II type IA receptors (AT1aR). Ligands for these receptors not only function by blocking the deleterious G-protein mediated pathway leading to heart failure, but also signal via G-protein independent pathways that involve receptor phosphorylation by G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) leading to recruitment of the multifunctional protein, β-arrestin. Originally thought to play a role in GPCR desensitization and internalization, β-arrestin has recently been shown to mediate signaling independent of classical second messengers in a way that is often protective to the heart. The multi-functionality of β-arrestin makes it an intriguing molecule in the development of the next generation of drugs for cardiac diseases with the potential to simultaneously inhibit deleterious G-protein dependent pathways while activating beneficial β-arrestin mediated signaling. In this review, we explore various facets of β-arrestin signaling and offer a perspective on its potential role as a key signaling molecule in the treatment of heart failure. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure."
SourceAvailable from: Francheska Delgado-Peraza[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major transducers of external stimuli and key therapeutic targets in many pathological conditions. When activated by different ligands, one receptor can elicit multiple signalling cascades that are mediated by G proteins or β-arrestin, a process defined as functional selectivity or ligand bias. However, the dynamic mechanisms underlying β-arrestin signalling remain unknown. Here by studying the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), we identify ligand-specific endocytic dwell times, that is, the time during which receptors are clustered into clathrin pits together with β-arrestins before endocytosis, as the mechanism controlling β-arrestin signalling. Agonists inducing short endocytic dwell times produce little or no β-arrestin signalling, whereas those eliciting prolonged dwell times induce robust signalling. Remarkably, extending CB1R dwell times by preventing endocytosis substantially increased β-arrestin signalling. These studies reveal how receptor activation translates into β-arrestin signalling and identify a mechanism to control this pathway.Nature Communications 08/2014; 5:4589. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5589 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) produce and degrade the myocardial extracellular matrix and are critical in maladaptive ventricular remodeling that can result in heart failure (HF). β-Arrestins are important signaling molecules involved in β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) desensitization and can also mediate signaling in a G protein-independent fashion. We hypothesize that β-arrestins play an important role in the regulation of adult human CF biology with regard to myofibroblast transformation, increased collagen synthesis, and myocardial fibrosis which are important in the development of HF. β-Arrestin1 & 2 expression is significantly upregulated in adult human CF isolated from failing left ventricles and β-AR signaling is uncoupled with loss of β-agonist-mediated inhibition of collagen synthesis versus normal control CF. Knockdown of either β-arrestin1 or 2 restored β-AR signaling and β-agonist mediated inhibition of collagen synthesis. Overexpression of β-arrestins in normal CF led to a failing phenotype with increased baseline collagen synthesis, impaired β-AR signaling, and loss of β-agonist-mediated inhibition of collagen synthesis. β-Arrestin knockdown in failing CF diminished TGF-β stimulated collagen synthesis and also inhibited ERK phosphorylation. Overexpression of β-arrestins in normal CF increased basal ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 phosphorylation and enhanced TGF-β-stimulated collagen synthesis. This was prevented by pre-treatment with a MEK1/2 inhibitor. Enhanced β-arrestin signaling appears to be deleterious in CF by promoting a pro-fibrotic phenotype via uncoupling of β-AR signaling as well as potentiating ERK and Smad signaling. Targeted inhibition of β-arrestins in CF may represent a therapeutic strategy to prevent maladaptive myocardial fibrosis.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 11/2014; 76:73–83. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.08.006 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stem-cell antigen 1-positive (Sca-1+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs), a vital kind of CSCs in humans, promote cardiac repair in vivo and can differentiate to cardiomyocytes with 5'-azacytizine treatment in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. β-arrestin2 is an important scaffold protein and highly expressed in the heart. To explore the function of β-arrestin2 in Sca-1+ CSC differentiation, we used β-arrestin2-knockout mice and overexpression strategies. Real-time PCR revealed that β-arrestin2 promoted 5'-azacytizine-induced Sca-1+ CSC differentiation in vitro. Because the microRNA 155 (miR-155) may regulate β-arrestin2 expression, we detected its role and relationship with β-arrestin2 and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3β), another probable target of miR-155. Real-time PCR revealed that miR-155, inhibited by β-arrestin2, impaired 5'-azacytizine-induced Sca-1+ CSC differentiation. On luciferase report assay, miR-155 could inhibit the activity of β-arrestin2 and GSK3β, which suggests a loop pathway between miR-155 and β-arrestin2. Furthermore, β-arrestin2-knockout inhibited the activity of GSK3β. Akt, the upstream inhibitor of GSK3β, was inhibited in β-arrestin2-Knockout mice, so the activity of GSK3β was regulated by β-arrestin2 not Akt. We transplanted Sca-1+ CSCs from β-arrestin2-knockout mice to mice with myocardial infarction and found similar protective functions as in wild-type mice but impaired arterial elastance. Furthermore, low level of β-arrestin2 agreed with decreased phosphorylation of AKT and increased phophorylation of GSK3β, similar to in vitro findings. The β-arrestin2/miR-155/GSK3β pathway may be a new mechanism with implications for treatment of heart disease.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 06/2014; DOI:10.1111/jcmm.12339 · 3.70 Impact Factor