Β-arrestin: a signaling molecule and potential therapeutic target for heart failure.
ABSTRACT Currently, some of the most effective treatments for heart failure target GPCRs such as the beta-adrenergic receptors (β1AR and β2AR) and angiotensin II type IA receptors (AT1aR). Ligands for these receptors not only function by blocking the deleterious G-protein mediated pathway leading to heart failure, but also signal via G-protein independent pathways that involve receptor phosphorylation by G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) leading to recruitment of the multifunctional protein, β-arrestin. Originally thought to play a role in GPCR desensitization and internalization, β-arrestin has recently been shown to mediate signaling independent of classical second messengers in a way that is often protective to the heart. The multi-functionality of β-arrestin makes it an intriguing molecule in the development of the next generation of drugs for cardiac diseases with the potential to simultaneously inhibit deleterious G-protein dependent pathways while activating beneficial β-arrestin mediated signaling. In this review, we explore various facets of β-arrestin signaling and offer a perspective on its potential role as a key signaling molecule in the treatment of heart failure. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure."
Article: Structure and conformational changes in the C-terminal domain of the beta2-adrenoceptor: insights from fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The C terminus of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) interacts with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and arrestins in an agonist-dependent manner, suggesting that conformational changes induced by ligands in the transmembrane domains are transmitted to the C terminus. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to examine ligand-induced structural changes in the distance between two positions on the beta(2)-AR C terminus and cysteine 265 (Cys-265) at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane domain 6. The donor fluorophore FlAsH (Fluorescein Arsenical Helix binder) was attached to a CCPGCC motif introduced at position 351-356 in the proximal C terminus or at the distal C terminus. An acceptor fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 568, was attached to Cys-265. FRET analyses revealed that the average distances between Cys-265 and the proximal and distal FlAsH sites were 57 and 62A(,) respectively. These relatively large distances suggest that the C terminus is in an extended, relatively unstructured conformation. Nevertheless, we observed ligand-specific changes in FRET. All ligands induced an increase in FRET between the proximal C-terminal FlAsH site and Cys-265. Ligands that have been shown to induce arrestin-dependent ERK activation, including the catecholamine agonists and the inverse agonist ICI118551, led to a decrease in FRET between the distal FlAsH site and Cys-265, whereas other ligands had no effect or induced a small increase in FRET. Taken together the results provide new insight into the structure of the C terminus of the beta(2)-AR as well as ligand-induced conformational changes that may be relevant to arrestin-dependent regulation and signaling.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2007; 282(18):13895-905. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Elevated levels of mRNA can account for the trans-activation of human immunodeficiency virus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The genome of human immunodeficiency virus encodes a protein that dramatically elevates amounts of viral proteins. The precise mechanism of this trans-activation remains to be established. It has been reported that trans-activation can occur without major changes in the levels of mRNA. We constructed recombinant plasmids containing those viral sequences required in cis for trans-activation linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. These plasmids were introduced into cultured cells in either the presence or absence of a second plasmid that directed expression of the viral trans-activator protein. Expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was measured at the level of protein (by enzymatic assay) and RNA (by ribonuclease protection and primer extension). Our results demonstrate that trans-activation is accompanied by large increases in mRNA levels; these increases may be sufficient to explain the elevated levels of trans-activated protein.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1987; 83(24):9734-8. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Distinct conformational changes in beta-arrestin report biased agonism at seven-transmembrane receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Beta-arrestins critically regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), both by inhibiting classical G protein signaling and by initiating distinct beta-arrestin-mediated signaling. The recent discovery of beta-arrestin-biased ligands and receptor mutants has allowed characterization of these independent "G protein-mediated" and "beta-arrestin-mediated" signaling mechanisms of 7TMRs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual functions of beta-arrestins remain unclear. Here, using an intramolecular BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer)-based biosensor of beta-arrestin 2 and a combination of biased ligands and/or biased mutants of three different 7TMRs, we provide evidence that beta-arrestin can adopt multiple "active" conformations. Surprisingly, phosphorylation-deficient mutants of the receptors are also capable of directing similar conformational changes in beta-arrestin as is the wild-type receptor. This indicates that distinct receptor conformations induced and/or stabilized by different ligands can promote distinct and functionally specific conformations in beta-arrestin even in the absence of receptor phosphorylation. Our data thus highlight another interesting aspect of 7TMR signaling--i.e., functionally specific receptor conformations can be translated to downstream effectors such as beta-arrestins, thereby governing their functional specificity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2008; 105(29):9988-93. · 9.68 Impact Factor