Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Cytogenetic Features of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma With Clear Cell Features

Department of Urology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 11/2010; 185(1):30-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.09.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Papillary renal cell carcinoma is characterized histologically by tumors with cells arranged in a papillary pattern. Typically the cells have a chromophilic appearance but areas may show cells with clear cytoplasm, similar to those in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
We re-reviewed the histological slides of 148 patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma who underwent nephrectomy for the presence of clear cells. Results were correlated with other pathological features, immunohistochemical expression of 22 protein markers, cytogenetic analysis and overall survival.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma with clear cells was identified in 57 patients (39%). Clear cells were associated with higher T classification and grade, vascular invasion and type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry these tumors revealed higher expression of epithelial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 than papillary renal cell carcinoma without clear cells. All papillary renal cell carcinomas with clear cells expressed α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase and 76% expressed cytokeratin 7. Six of 8 tumors (75%) with chromosome 3p loss had clear cell features. The presence of clear cells was retained as an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis. In cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma with clear cells the loss of 3p material and absent cytokeratin 7 expression were associated with a worse outcome.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma with clear cells is a novel entity with a unique clinical, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic phenotype. The presence of clear cells is associated with aggressive pathological characteristics and poorer prognosis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most frequent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after clear cell RCC. In contrast to clear cell RCC, there is no consensual protocol using targeted therapy for metastatic pRCC. Moreover, diagnosis of some pRCC, especially pRCC of type 2 (pRCC2) may be challenging. Our aim was to identify molecular biomarkers that could be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of pRCC. We studied the clinical, histological, immunohistological, and comprehensive genetic features of a series of 31 pRCC including 15 pRCC1 and 16 pRCC2. We aimed to determine whether pRCC represents a unique entity or several diseases. In addition, we compared the genetic features of pRCC2 to those of eight RCC showing various degrees of tubulo-papillary architecture, including three TFE-translocation RCC and five unclassified RCC. We demonstrate that pRCC is a heterogeneous group of tumors with distinct evolution. While most pRCC2 had genetic profiles similar to pRCC1, some shared genomic features, such as loss of 3p and loss of chromosome 14, with clear cell RCC, TFE-translocation RCC, and unclassified RCC. We identified variants of the MET gene in three pRCC1. A mutation in the BRAF gene was also identified in one pRCC1. In addition, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified several variant genes. Genomic profiling completed by NGS allowed us to classify pRCC2 in several groups and to identify novel mutations. Our findings provide novel information on the pathogenesis of pRCC that allow insights for personalized treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 03/2015; 54(6). DOI:10.1002/gcc.22248 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clear cell tubulopapillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently described rare renal malignancy that displays characteristic gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical differences from other renal tumour types. However, CCPRCC remains a very poorly understood entity. We therefore sought to elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms involved in this neoplasm by carrying out targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify associated mutations, and in addition examined the expression of non-coding (nc)RNAs. We identified multiple somatic mutations in CCPRCC cases including a recurrent (3 of 14 cases (21%)) non-synonymous T992I mutation in the MET proto-oncogene, a gene associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using a microarray approach we found that the expression of mature (n = 1105) and pre-miRNAs (n = 1105), as well as snoRNA and scaRNAs (n = 2214) in CCPRCC cases differed from that of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) or papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) tumours. Surprisingly, and unlike other renal tumour subtypes, we found that all five members of the miR-200 family were over-expressed in CCPRCC cases. As these miRNAs are intimately involved with EMT, we stained CCPRCC cases for E-cadherin, vimentin and β-catenin and found tumour cells of all cases were positive for all three markers, a combination rarely reported in other renal tumours that could have diagnostic implications. Taken together with the mutational analysis, these data suggest that EMT in CCPRCC tumour cells is incomplete or blocked, consistent with the indolent clinical course typical of this malignancy. In summary, as well as describing a novel pathological mechanism in renal carcinomas, this work adds to the mounting evidence that CCPRCC should be formally considered a distinct entity.
    The Journal of Pathology 01/2014; 232(1). DOI:10.1002/path.4296 · 7.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently, there are no established diagnostic and prognostic serum markers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the putative significance of serum cell-free DNA. Preoperative serum samples from 200 consecutive patients with sporadic, solid renal tumors were analyzed (157 patients with RCC and 43 patients with benign renal tumors). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess total cell-free DNA (ring finger protein 185 [RNF185]) and CpG island methylation of Ras association domain family member 1A (RASSF1A) von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2), and P16 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A). Associations with RCC, pathologic variables, and disease-specific survival were evaluated. Total cell-free DNA levels and CpG island methylation of RASSF1A and VHL were highly diagnostic for RCC with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.755, 0.705, and 0.694, respectively. VHL methylation was detected more frequently in patients with clear cell RCC than in those with other subtypes (P = .007). Total cell-free DNA levels were higher in patients with metastatic RCC (P < .001) and necrotic RCC (P = .003) and were associated with poorer disease-specific survival (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, the tumor stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) score (P < .001) and categorized total cell-free DNA levels (P = .028) were retained as independent prognostic factors. The current results indicated that cell-free DNA represents a novel serum-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for RCC. Total serum cell-free DNA levels and CpG island methylation of RASSF1A and VHL may be useful diagnostic biomarkers for RCC. VHL methylation of cell-free DNA is suggestive of clear cell RCC. Total serum cell-free DNA may be a useful prognostic biomarker that may assist in tailoring postoperative surveillance and therapy. External prospective validation of these data will be required.
    Cancer 03/2011; 118(1):82-90. DOI:10.1002/cncr.26254 · 4.90 Impact Factor