Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. J Ethnopharmacol
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. on apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells and its possible mechanisms, and to measure the immune toxicity of Progallin A in vitro.
Progallin A was isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. with column chromatography. The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes and the viability of BEL-7404 cells were assessed with MTT assay. Inverted microscope, light microscope and fluorescence microscope were utilized to observe the morphological changes of BEL-7404 cells respectively. AnnexinV/PI double labeling and TUNEL assay were used to detect early apoptosis and DNA fragmentations of BEL-7404 cells respectively. In addition, cell cycle distribution was analyzed by using flow cytometry (FCM). Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot respectively.
The results showed that Progallin A had low immune toxicity and the proliferation of BEL-7404 cells was strongly inhibited by Progallin A in a time- and dose-dependent manner and that the characteristics of apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells were observed. The results also showed that apoptosis rates and the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased with prolongation of the action time. The results of flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that Progallin A induced significant G1/M and G2/M arrest of BEL-7404 cells. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot showed that the expression of Bax was found to be noticeably up-regulated and the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated significantly.
These results indicate that Progallin A has low immune toxicity in vitro and induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells which is related to the G1/M and G2/M arrest, and it exerts its apoptotic effect by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.
"All part extracts of PE have been reported to have high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities (Iamsaard et al., 2014a, 2014b; Liu et al., 2008; el-Mekkawy et al., 1995; Khanna & Bansal, 1975; Srivastava & Ranjan, 1967; Theresa et al., 1965; Basa & Srinivasuku, 1987). PE extract has been reported to have capacity in lipid peroxidation inhibition and anti-cancers (Krishnami & Mirunalini, 20012; Lou et al., 2011; Zhong et al., 2011). Previously, PE extract has been demonstrated to prevent various tissues damages except the testis induced by chemicals or drugs (Pramayothin et al., 2006; Tasduq et al., 2005; Khandelwal et al., 2002; Dhuley & Naik, 1997; Asmawi et al., 1993; Ahmed et al., 1998). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IAMSAARD, S.; ARUN, S.; BURAWAT, J.; SUKHORUM, W.; BOONRUANGSRI, P.; NAMKING, M.; UABUNDIT, N.; NUALKAEW, S. & SRIPANIDKULCHAI, S. Phyllanthus emblica L. branch extract ameliorates testicular damage in valproic acid-induced rats. Int. J. Morphol., 33(3):1016-1022, 2015. SUMMARY: Valproic acid (VPA), widely used in treating epileptic patients, can damage reproductive parameters causing male infertility. This study aimed to investigate protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. branch (PE) extract on rat testicular damage induced with VPA. Male rats were divided into 6 groups (control, VPA, 250 mg/kgBW PE only, and 50, 100, 250 mg/kgBW PE+VPA, respectively). Animals were pretreated with PE for 23 days and co-administered with VPA for 10 days before all reproductive parameters were determined. The results showed all doses of PE significantly protected the decrease testicular weight and testosterone level in VPA rats. PE significantly improved the decrease sperm concentration in VPA treated rats. Moreover, testicular histology of PE+VPA groups showed declining of testicular histopathologies as compared to VPA group. Therefore, it seems that PE branch extract can prevent testicular damages including male reproductive parameters in rats induced with VPA.
"Pro-apoptotic proteins, such as BAD and BAX, can trigger the apoptotic cascade by forming pores in the mitochondrial membrane [13,14]. These membrane pores lead to an increased cytosolic concentration of cytochrome-c, which in turn activates effector caspases. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centipedegrass extract (CGE) is mainly composed of maysin and its derivatives, which are recognized internationally as natural compounds. Compared to other flavonoids, maysin has a unique structure in that mannose is bound to the flavonoid backbone. CGE exhibits some biological properties in that it can function as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-adipogenic, and insecticidal. Whether CGE has other biological functions, such as anti-cancer activity, is unknown.
B16F1 (mouse) and SKMEL-5 (human) cells were treated with CGE, and their subsequent survival was determined using MTT assay. We performed a cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI), and detected apoptosis using double staining with annexin V-FITC-PI. In addition, we examined mitochondrial membrane potentials using flow cytometry, as well as signaling mechanisms with an immunoblotting analysis.
CGE inhibited skin cancer cell growth by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase, and increased both early and late apoptotic cell populations without affecting normal cells. Furthermore, we observed mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, increased cytochrome-c release, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, and increased poly ADP-ribose polymerase degradation. CGE also downregulated activation of p-AKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), and p-BAD in a time-dependent manner. LY294002 inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) significantly sensitized skin cancer cells, which led to an increase in CGE-induced apoptosis.
CGE controlled skin cancer cell growth by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3beta signaling pathway and activating the effector caspases. This study is the first to demonstrate anti-cancer properties for CGE, and that CGE may be an effective therapeutic agent for treating skin cancer.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2013; 13(1):350. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-350 · 2.02 Impact Factor
"506.10611) was deducted. Compound 3 was previously isolated and identified from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L (Zhong et al., 2011), and from Polygonum capitatum (Liu et al., 2008). Concerning compound 4, it was previously isolated from Camptotheca acuminate (Zhang et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminalia ivoriensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little
ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was
to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was
fractionated by silica gel column chromatography followed by Sephadex LH20 filtration. Elution
solvents were methanol (MeOH), methylene chloride (Mc) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc). Analysis of the
obtained fractions (F1-F4) by liquid chromatography coupled to positive electro-spray ionization
tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) afforded six known polyphenols: 1) 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic
acid); 2) 3,7,8-tri-O-methylellagic acid; 3) Progallin A; 4) 3,3',4-O-Trimethyl-4'-O-β-Dglucopyranosylellagic
acid; 5) Punicalagin and, 6) Punicalin. All these natural products were isolated
here for the first time from this plant. They presented various biological activities among which were
anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-HIV activities.
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