Is the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipaemia the same for a moderate-fat meal as it is for a high-fat meal?

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 11/2010; 105(4):506-16. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114510003995
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Moderate-intensity exercise can lower the TAG response to a high-fat meal; however, the British diet is moderate in fat, and no study to date has compared the effect of such exercise on responses to high-fat and moderate-fat meals. The present work investigated the effect of brisk walking performed 13 h before intake of both high-fat and moderate-fat meals on postprandial plasma TAG concentrations. Eight inactive, overweight men completed four separate 2 d trials, i.e. rest (Con) or a 90-min treadmill walk (Ex) on the evening of day 1, followed by the ingestion of a moderate-fat (Mod) or high-fat (High) meal on the morning of day 2. High-fat meals contained 66 % of total energy as fat, while the percentage was 35 % for moderate-fat meals; both the meals were, however, isoenergetic. On day 2, venous blood was sampled in the fasted state, 30 and 60 min after ingesting the test meal and then hourly until 6 h post-meal. Exercise reduced plasma TAG concentrations significantly (P < 0·001), with no exercise × meal interaction (P = 0·459). Walking reduced the total TAG response to a high-fat meal by 29 % (relative to High Con); the same bout of exercise performed before ingesting a moderate-fat meal lowered total TAG by 26 % (compared with Mod Con). The ability of a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise bout to lower postprandial TAG concentrations is just as great, in percentage terms, when the test meal ingested is of a moderate rather than a high fat content.

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    ABSTRACT: This review examines the effect of prior exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol (pTAG) concentrations, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have shown that a single bout of exercise reduces pTAG concentrations; however, several modulators such as exercise energy expenditure/deficit, mode of exercise (aerobic/resistance/high intensity/intermittent exercise or combinations), type of meal (moderate or high fat), time frame between exercise and meal and target group may individually or in conjunction influence this effect. On the other hand, at least for aerobic exercise, training reduces pTAG concentrations transiently (~2 days); therefore, exercise sessions should be frequent enough to maintain this clinically significant improvement. For the healthy population, it seems that a subject’s preference and ability determine which type of exercise to undertake to attenuate pTAG concentrations; an energy expenditure of ~30 kJ/kg of body mass (or ~2–2.5 MJ) not combined with a corresponding increase in energy intake is required; for resistance or intermittent exercise, for those following a moderate rather than a high-fat diet, and for those with obesity (expressed as kJ/kg of body mass), a smaller energy expenditure is probably sufficient. More studies are needed to investigate dose–response/plateau effects, as well as the threshold of energy expenditure in those with diabetes mellitus and other high-risk populations. Finally, investigation of the underlying mechanisms may be clinically helpful in individualizing the appropriate intervention.
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