Revealing Henle's Fiber Layer Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Department of Vision Science, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.4). 11/2010; 52(3):1486-92. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.10-5946
Source: PubMed


Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) uses infrared light to visualize the reflectivity of structures of differing optical properties within the retina. Despite their presence on histologic studies, traditionally acquired SD-OCT images are unable to delineate the axons of photoreceptor nuclei, Henle's fiber layer (HFL). The authors present a new method to reliably identify HFL by varying the entry position of the SD-OCT beam through the pupil.
Fifteen eyes from 11 subjects with normal vision were prospectively imaged using 1 of 2 commercial SD-OCT systems. For each eye, the entry position of the SD-OCT beam through the pupil was varied horizontally and vertically. The reflectivity of outer retinal layers was measured as a function of beam position, and thicknesses were recorded.
The reflectivity of HFL was directionally dependent and increased with eccentricity on the side of the fovea opposite the entry position. When HFL was included in the measurement, the thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of central horizontal B-scans increased by an average of 52% in three subjects quantified. Four cases of pathology, in which alterations to the normal macular geometry affected HFL intensity, were identified.
The authors demonstrated a novel method to distinguish HFL from true ONL. An accurate measurement of the ONL is critical to clinical studies measuring photoreceptor layer thickness using any SD-OCT system. Recognition of the optical properties of HFL can explain reflectivity changes imaged in this layer in association with macular pathology.

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Available from: Joseph Carroll, Jan 14, 2014
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    • "For example, using the current technology, it is not always possible to differentiate the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Another example is to sum the outer plexiform layer (OPL), the Henle's fibre layer (HFL), the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and the inner part of the photoreceptor layer (PIS) into one single layer OPLONL- PIS, because the thickness of HFL depends on the directionality of the SD-OCT (Lujan et al. 2011). To test the concurrence validity, the measured MACVOL using this ImageJ algorithm was compared with the measured MACVOL using the Heidelberg Eye Explorer for all patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the concordance/symmetry of each retinal layers in individuals without macular pathology and to further characterize the localization of inner retinal thinning in eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade. Retinal layers of one hundred eyes of 50 individuals without macular pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and manually segmented using ImageJ software (developed by Wayne Rasband, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). In the second part of the study, retrospective analysis of 3028 cases of pars plana vitrectomy in University Eye Hospital Cologne, Germany, was conducted, retrieving nine patients with silicone oil-based endotamponade with no macular condition interfering retinal layers measurements. These patients had retinal detachment not involving the macula due to various conditions. In these patients, retinal layer segmentation was performed and compared with the fellow eye. There is a moderate-to-high concordance for all retinal layers between the right and the left eye of the same individual. In eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade, the inner retinal layers become subsequently thinner. Ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers contribute most to this thinning, that is, 0.537 ± 0.096 mm(3) compared with 0.742 ± 0.117 mm(3) ; p = 0.006. Outer retinal layers were not affected by silicone oil-based endotamponade (p = 0.439 for the differences of calculated outer retinal layers). Ganglion cell and inner retinal layers become subsequently thinner after the use of silicone oil-based endotamponade. This study advocates the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography for patient management with silicone oil endotamponade to early detect subsequent retinal thinning.
    Acta ophthalmologica 11/2013; 92(4). DOI:10.1111/aos.12307 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Scans crossing the fovea along the vertical meridian are shown in a representative normal subject and three BCM patients (Fig. 2B). The photoreceptor outer nuclear layer (ONL), which includes the photoreceptor nuclei and their axons (Lujan et al., 2011), is highlighted. P1 (age 5) and P16 (age 28) showed some differences from the normal (age 29), whereas P4 (age 50) had foveal degeneration with FIG. 1. Pedigrees and genotypes of BCM families. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human X-linked blue-cone monochromacy (BCM), a disabling congenital visual disorder of cone photoreceptors, is a candidate disease for gene augmentation therapy. BCM is caused by either mutations in the red (OPN1LW) and green (OPN1MW) cone photoreceptor opsin gene array or large deletions encompassing portions of the gene array and upstream regulatory sequences that would predict a lack of red or green opsin expression. The fate of opsin-deficient cone cells is unknown. We know that rod opsin null mutant mice show rapid postnatal death of rod photoreceptors. We studied a cohort of 20 BCM patients (ages 5-58) with large deletions in the red/green opsin gene array using in vivo histology with high resolution retinal imaging. Already in the first years of life, retinal structure was not normal: there was partial loss of photoreceptors across the central retina. Remaining cone cells had detectable outer segments that were abnormally shortened. Adaptive optics imaging confirmed existence of inner segments at a spatial density greater than that expected for the residual blue cones. The evidence indicates that human cones in patients with deletions in the red/green opsin gene array can survive in reduced numbers with limited outer segment material, suggesting potential value of gene therapy for BCM.
    Human gene therapy 09/2013; 24(12). DOI:10.1089/hum.2013.153 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Further studies using JA-OCT may investigate visibility of directionally reflecting layers such as Henle’s fiber layer [59]. Directional reflectivity in other retinal layers, known as optical Stiles-Crawford effect and caused by the waveguiding property of the photoreceptors, can also be observed with angle-resolved OCT [60]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Joint-aperture optical coherence tomography (JA-OCT) is an angle-resolved OCT method, in which illumination from an active channel is simultaneously probed by several passive channels. JA-OCT increases the collection efficiency and effective sensitivity of the OCT system without increasing the power on the sample. Additionally, JA-OCT provides angular scattering information about the sample in a single acquisition, so the OCT imaging speed is not reduced. Thus, JA-OCT is especially suitable for ultra high speed in-vivo imaging. JA-OCT is compared to other angle-resolved techniques, and the relation between joint aperture imaging, adaptive optics, coherent and incoherent compounding is discussed. We present angle-resolved imaging of the human retina at an axial scan rate of 1.68 MHz, and demonstrate the benefits of JA-OCT: Speckle reduction, signal increase and suppression of specular and parasitic reflections. Moreover, in the future JA-OCT may allow for the reconstruction of the full Doppler vector and tissue discrimination by analysis of the angular scattering dependence.
    Biomedical Optics Express 04/2013; 4(4):619-34. DOI:10.1364/BOE.4.000619 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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