skNAC, a Smyd1-interacting transcription factor, is involved in cardiac development and skeletal muscle growth and regeneration.

Department of Pediatrics, Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2010; 107(48):20750-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1013493107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cardiac and skeletal muscle development and maintenance require complex interactions between DNA-binding proteins and chromatin remodeling factors. We previously reported that Smyd1, a muscle-restricted histone methyltransferase, is essential for cardiogenesis and functions with a network of cardiac regulatory proteins. Here we show that the muscle-specific transcription factor skNAC is the major binding partner for Smyd1 in the developing heart. Targeted deletion of skNAC in mice resulted in partial embryonic lethality by embryonic day 12.5, with ventricular hypoplasia and decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation that were similar but less severe than in Smyd1 mutants. Expression of Irx4, a ventricle-specific transcription factor down-regulated in hearts lacking Smyd1, also depended on the presence of skNAC. Viable skNAC(-/-) adult mice had reduced postnatal skeletal muscle growth and impaired regenerative capacity after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Satellite cells isolated from skNAC(-/-) mice had impaired survival compared with wild-type littermate satellite cells. Our results indicate that skNAC plays a critical role in ventricular cardiomyocyte expansion and regulates postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration in mice.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical properties of the sarcomere are carefully orchestrated through alternative splicing to fit the varying demands on the heart. By the recent discovery of RBM20 and RBM24, two major heart and skeletal muscle-restricted splicing factors, it became evident that alternative splicing events in the heart occur in regulated networks rather than in isolated events. Analysis of knockout mice of these splice factors has shed light on the importance of these fundamental processes in the heart. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role and regulation of alternative splicing in the developing and diseased heart, specifically within the sarcomere. Through various examples (titin, myomesin, troponin T, tropomyosin and LDB3) we illustrate how alternative splicing regulates the functional properties of the sarcomere. Finally, we evaluate opportunities and obstacles to modulate alternative splicing in therapeutic approaches for cardiac disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 02/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.02.008 · 5.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects beyond the lungs amongst which muscle wasting is a prominent contributor to exercise limitation and an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanisms leading to skeletal muscle dysfunction/wasting are not fully understood and are likely to be multi-factorial. The need to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at improving skeletal muscle dysfunction/wasting requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities. Microarrays are powerful tools that allow the investigation of the expression of thousands of genes, virtually the whole genome, simultaneously. We aim at identifying genes and molecular pathways involved in skeletal muscle wasting in COPD.Methods We assessed and compared the vastus lateralis transcriptome of COPD patients with low fat free mass index (FFMI) as a surrogate of muscle mass (COPDL) (FEV1 30¿±¿3.6%pred, FFMI 15¿±¿0.2 Kg.m¿2) with patients with COPD and normal FFMI (COPDN) (FEV1 44¿±¿5.8%pred, FFMI 19¿±¿0.5 Kg.m¿2) and a group of age and sex matched healthy controls (C) (FEV1 95¿±¿3.9%pred, FFMI 20¿±¿0.8 Kg.m¿2) using Agilent Human Whole Genome 4x44K microarrays. The altered expression of several of these genes was confirmed by real time TaqMan PCR. Protein levels of P21 were assessed by immunoblotting.ResultsA subset of 42 genes was differentially expressed in COPDL in comparison to both COPDN and C (PFP¿<¿0.05; ¿1.5¿¿¿FC¿¿¿1.5). The altered expression of several of these genes was confirmed by real time TaqMan PCR and correlated with different functional and structural muscle parameters. Five of these genes (CDKN1A, GADD45A, PMP22, BEX2, CGREF1, CYR61), were associated with cell cycle arrest and growth regulation and had been previously identified in studies relating muscle wasting and ageing. Protein levels of CDKN1A, a recognized marker of premature ageing/cell cycle arrest, were also found to be increased in COPDL.Conclusions This study provides evidence of differentially expressed genes in peripheral muscle in COPD patients corresponding to relevant biological processes associated with skeletal muscle wasting and provides potential targets for future therapeutic interventions to prevent loss of muscle function and mass in COPD.
    Respiratory Research 01/2015; 16(1):1. DOI:10.1186/s12931-014-0139-5 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Rhadomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood. RMS cells resemble fetal myoblasts but are unable to complete myogenic differentiation. In previous work we showed that miR-206, which is low in RMS, when induced in RMS cells promotes the resumption of differentiation by modulating more than 700 genes. To better define the pathways involved in the conversion of RMS cells into their differentiated counterpart, we focused on two miR-206 effectors emerged from the microarray analysis, SMYD1 and G6PD. SMYD1, one of the most highly upregulated genes, is a H3K4 histone methyltransferase. Here we show that SMYD1 silencing does not interfere with the proliferative block or with the loss anchorage independence imposed by miR-206, but severely impairs differentiation of ERMS, ARMS, and myogenic cells. Thus SMYD1 is essential for the activation of muscle genes. Conversely, among the downregulated genes, we found G6PD, the enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step of the pentose phosphate shunt. In this work, we confirmed that G6PD is a direct target of miR-206. Moreover, we showed that G6PD silencing in ERMS cells impairs proliferation and soft agar growth. However, G6PD overexpression does not interfere with the pro-differentiating effect of miR-206, suggesting that G6PD downmodulation contributes to - but is not an absolute requirement for - the tumor suppressive potential of miR-206. Targeting cancer metabolism may enhance differentiation. However, therapeutic inhibition of G6PD is encumbered by side effects. As an alternative, we used DCA in combination with miR-206 to increase the flux of pyruvate into the mitochondrion by reactivating PDH. DCA enhanced the inhibition of RMS cell growth induced by miR-206, and sustained it upon miR-206 de-induction. Altogether these results link miR-206 to epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming, and suggest that it may be worth combining differentiation-inducing with metabolism-directed approaches.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/15384101.2015.1005993 · 5.01 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from