Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ageing may contribute to malnutrition. We aimed to explore whether COPD and ageing determine malnutrition in different manners. 460 stable COPD outpatients (376 males and 84 females) from the Extrapulmonary Consequences of COPD in the Elderly (ECCE) study database were investigated (age 75.0±5.9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54.7±18.3% predicted). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment® (MNA) questionnaire. From the MNA, three scores exploring the domains of the nutritional status were calculated: body composition, energy intake and body functionality scores. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were negatively correlated with five MNA items exploring mobility, patient's perception of own nutrition and health status, and arm and calf circumferences (lowest Spearman's rho (rs)=-0.011; highest p=0.039). GOLD stages were independently correlated with body composition and body functionality scores (model r2=0.073). Age was negatively correlated with four MNA items exploring loss of appetite, fluid intake, mobility and autonomy in daily life (lowest rs=-0.013; highest p=0.030). Age was independently correlated with body functionality score (model r2=0.037). Severe COPD and ageing are independent and probably concurrent conditions leading to malnutrition. The MNA questionnaire allows a valuable insight into the complexity of components of nutritional status and may provide useful clues for treatment strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information is available about Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have conceived this analysis to study the associations between MNA questionnaire, body composition, and rehospitalisations in patients with COPD.
This prospective study recruited control subjects and COPD patients for pulmonary function testing, nutritional assessment using MNA questionnaire, body composition measurement, and dyspnoea evaluation. We recorded hospitalisations during 6 months after discharge.
Our sample included 22 healthy controls (71 ± 5 years, 59% men) and 108 COPD patients (71 ± 10 years, 75% men, 85% severe or very severe COPD). MNA score was significantly higher in control subjects than in COPD patients (27.0 ± 1.7 vs 21.2 ± 4.9, p < 0.001). MNA score decreased over GOLD stage (p = 0.02) and indicated malnutrition in 14% of patients, and further 55% were at risk of malnutrition. Body mass index but not body composition parameters was higher in control subjects when compared to COPD patients (29.1 ± 3.8 vs 27.0 ± 6.3, p = 0.041). A positive correlation between MNA score, body fat content (p = 0.001), and lean body mass (p < 0.001) was observed. During follow-up, 45 (41%) patients were rehospitalised. Malnourished patients had higher risk of rehospitalisation in univariate analysis (HR 2.62, 95%Cl 1.13-6.07), which was maintained in an adjusted model (HR 2.93, 95%CI 1.05-7.32).
Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was frequent, associated with lower body fat mass and lean body mass, and independently predicted hospitalisations at six months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent and increasing health problems in the elderly on a worldwide scale. The management of COPD in older patients presents practical diagnostic and treatment issues, which are reviewed with reference to the stable stage of the disease.
In the diagnostic approach of COPD in the elderly the use of spirometry is recommended, but both patient conditions (such as inability to correctly perform it due to fatigue, lack of coordination, and cognitive impairment) and metrics characteristics should be taken into account for the test performance. It has been demonstrated in population studies that the use of the fixed ratio determines a substantial overdiagnosis of COPD in the oldest patients. Other parameters have been suggested [such as the evaluation of Lower Limit of Normality (LLN) for the FEV1/FVC ratio], which may be useful to guide the diagnosis. Several nonpharmacologic - such as smoking cessation, vaccination, physical activity, and pulmonary rehabilitation, nutrition, and eventually invasive ventilation - and pharmacologic interventions have been shown to improve outcomes and have been reviewed. Effective management of COPD in older adults should always consider the ability of patients to properly use inhalers and the involvement of caregivers or family members as a useful support to care, especially when treating cognitively impaired patients. Especially in the older population, timely identification and treatment of comorbidities are also crucial, but evidence in this area is still lacking and clinical practice guidelines do not take comorbidities into account in their recommendations.
The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease has recommended criteria for diagnosis and management of COPD in the general population. On the contrary, available evidence suggests practical limitations in diagnostic approach and intervention strategies in older patients with stable COPD that need to be further studied for a translation into clinical practice guidelines.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 12/2011; 17 Suppl 1:S43-8. DOI:10.1097/01.mcp.0000410747.20958.39 · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To summarize recent evidences and advances on the implementation and the use of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA).
Despite being introduced and validated for clinical use about 20 years ago, the MNA has recently received new attention in order to more widely disseminate among healthcare professionals the practice of a systematic nutritional screening and assessment of the old patient. Particularly, the structure has been implemented to face the difficulties in having the patients contributing to the assessment and to reduce further the time required to complete the evaluation. Recent data also confirm that in older populations prevalence of malnutrition by this tool is associated with the level of dependence. The rationale of nutritional assessment is to identify patients candidate to nutritional support. However, the sensitivity of the MNA is still debated because it has been associated with a high-risk 'overdiagnosis' and the advantages of a positive screening need to be assessed both in terms of outcome and money saving.
The MNA is a simple and highly sensitive tool for nutritional screening and assessment. The large mass of data collected and the diffusion among healthcare professionals clearly support its use. However, the cost-effectiveness of interventions based on its scoring deserves investigation.
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