Autophosphorylation activates Dictyostelium myosin II heavy chain kinase A by providing a ligand for an allosteric binding site in the alpha-kinase domain.
ABSTRACT Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II heavy chain kinase A (MHCK A), a member of the atypical α-kinase family, phosphorylates sites in the myosin II tail that block filament assembly. Here we show that the catalytic activity of A-CAT, the α-kinase domain of MHCK A (residues 552-841), is severely inhibited by the removal of a disordered C-terminal tail sequence (C-tail; residues 806-841). The key residue in the C-tail was identified as Thr(825), which was found to be constitutively autophosphorylated. Dephosphorylation of Thr(825) using shrimp alkaline phosphatase decreased A-CAT activity. The activity of a truncated A-CAT lacking Thr(825) could be rescued by P(i), phosphothreonine, and a phosphorylated peptide, but not by threonine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, or an unphosphorylated peptide. These results focused attention on a P(i)-binding pocket located in the C-terminal lobe of A-CAT. Mutational analysis demonstrated that the P(i)-pocket was essential for A-CAT activity. Based on these results, it is proposed that autophosphorylation of Thr(825) activates ACAT by providing a covalently tethered ligand for the P(i)-pocket. Ab initio modeling studies using the Rosetta FloppyTail and FlexPepDock protocols showed that it is feasible for the phosphorylated Thr(825) to dock intramolecularly into the P(i)-pocket. Allosteric activation is predicted to involve a conformational change in Arg(734), which bridges the bound P(i) to Asp(762) in a key active site loop. Sequence alignments indicate that a comparable regulatory mechanism is likely to be conserved in Dictyostelium MHCK B-D and metazoan eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinases.
Article: Dictyostelium myosin II heavy-chain kinase A is activated by heparin, DNA and acidic phospholipids and inhibited by polylysine, polyarginine and histones.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dictyostelium myosin II heavy-chain kinase A (MHCK A) is activated by autophosphorylation. Heparin and DNA, as well as vesicles composed of phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylinositol, were found to increase the initial rate of MHCK A autophosphorylation 5-10-fold in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. The negatively charged molecules also increased the activity of the autophosphorylated MHCK A by about 2-fold. In contrast, positively charged polypeptides such as poly(D-lysine), poly(L-lysine), poly(L-arginine) and histones strongly inhibited (IC50 of 0.5 micrograms/ml) the activity of the active, autophosphorylated MHCK A. Similar levels of inhibition, on a weight basis, were observed for poly(L-lysine) fractions with molecular weights from 3800 to 150,000-300,000. The inhibition was competitive with respect to peptide substrate and mixed with respect to ATP. At much higher concentrations poly(L-lysine) also inhibited the ability of MHCK A to autophosphorylate. It is proposed that negatively charged compounds and autophosphorylation increase the activity of MHCK A by weakening the interaction between the catalytic domain and a positively charged autoinhibitory domain.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/1993; 1175(1):7-12. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Methods in Enzymology 02/1991; 200:115-20. · 2.04 Impact Factor
Article: Investigation of tightly coupled porphyrin arrays comprised of identical monomers for multibit information storage[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our prior designs for molecular-based information storage devices have employed multiple redox-active units organized in weakly coupled, covalently linked arrays. To explore a simpler design, we report here the synthesis of porphyrin arrays where porphyrins with identical oxidation potentials are directly linked to one another instead of joined via a molecular linker. Oxidative coupling with AgPF(6) of zinc(II)-5,15-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-10-phenylporphyrin, obtained by a rational synthesis, afforded the expected dimer joined by a meso-meso linkage and an unexpected trimer joined by meso-meso linkages. For attachment to an electroactive surface we synthesized a meso-linked porphyrin dimer with a thiol-linker in one of the meso positions. The S-acetyl protecting group was used to avoid handling free thiol groups. Coupling of zinc(II)-5,10,15-tris(3, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrin ("upper half") and zinc(II)-5-[4-(S-acetylthio)phenyl]-10,20-bis(3, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrin ("lower half") afforded three different meso-linked dimers with the desired dimer as the main product. Electrochemical examination of the meso-linked dimer in solution shows that the first two oxidation potentials of the array differ by approximately 0.15 V and straddle the value exhibited by the monomeric constituents. The third and fourth oxidation potentials of the array are also split although to a lesser extent ( approximately 0.08 V) than the first and second. For the meso-linked trimer, the first three oxidation waves are also split; however, these waves are severely overlapped. The electrochemical behavior of the dimers and trimer is indicative of strong electronic interactions among the porphyrins. The thiol-derivatized meso-linked dimers form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold via in situ cleavage of the S-acetylthio protecting group. The porphyrin SAM exhibits four well-resolved oxidation waves. Regardless, the meso-meso linkage is relatively unstable upon formation of the pi-cation radical(s). This characteristic indicates that the structural motif is of limited utility for molecular information storage elements.The Journal of Organic Chemistry 12/2000; 65(22):7371-8. · 4.45 Impact Factor