Transcriptional profiling of antimicrobial peptides avian β-defensins in the chicken ovary during sexual maturation and in response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection
ABSTRACT Avian β-defensins (AvβDs) are antimicrobial peptides that play significant roles in the innate immune system in chickens. The aim of this study was to identify the types of AvβDs expressed in the chicken ovary, to investigate the effects of sexual maturation in the ovarian mRNA abundance and to determine the changes in their expression levels as a result to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection. RNA was extracted from the ovary of healthy prepubertal, sexually mature and aged birds, as well as from sexually mature and aged SE infected birds. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that 11 AvβDs genes were expressed in the chicken ovary. A significant up regulation of AvβD1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11 was observed in the ovary of sexually mature and aged birds. Furthermore, a significant up-regulation of AvβD4, 5, 7, 11 and 12 was observed in the ovary of SE infected sexually mature birds. These results suggest that the mRNA expression of at least six AvβDs increase with age in the ovary of laying hens, and that at least five AvβDs show an induction in their expression in response to SE infection, indicating an AvβD-mediated immune response mechanism in the chicken ovary.
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- "Scale bars represent 20 µm. (Abdelsalam et al., 2010) increased expression of several AvBDs (Michailidis et al., 2012). Injection of birds with LPS resulted in an increase in the expression of several AvBDs in the theca tissue, although no response was observed in the granulosa layer (Subedi et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: The ovary and oviduct of the hen are susceptible to various pathogenic microorganisms, and infections in these organs may not only contaminate the eggs, but also disorder the egg formation. The immune function of the ovary and oviduct is essential to protect these tissues from infection as well as for the production of hygienic eggs. This paper reviews recent studies on the host defence system in the reproductive organs with reference to their innate immune functions, with emphasis on the important role of Toll-like receptors and avian β-defensins in this defence system.Avian biology research 02/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.3184/175815514X13902927945697 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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- "Initially such peptides were characterized as antimicrobial effectors of heterophils in the chicken and turkey (Evans et al., 1995). In recent years they have been shown to be key responders to infection at mucosal surfaces including Salmonella and Campylobacter infection of the intestinal tract (Akbari et al., 2008; Hasenstein and Lamont, 2007; van Dijk et al., 2007; Crhanova et al., 2011; Meade et al., 2009), Salmonella infection of the reproductive tract (Michailidis et al., 2012) and have been shown to have considerable antimicrobial activity towards Salmonella (Milona et al., 2007). The role of NK cells in avian bacterial infections is poorly described beyond that NK-lysin has anti-bacterial activity (Lee et al., 2012b). "
ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections remain important to the poultry industry both in terms of animal and public health, the latter due to the importance of poultry as a source of foodborne bacterial zoonoses such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. As such, much focus of research to the immune response to bacterial infection has been to Salmonella. In this review we will focus on how research on avian salmonellosis has developed our understanding of immunity to bacteria in the chicken from understanding the role of TLRs in recognition of bacterial pathogens, through the role of heterophils, macrophages and γδ lymphocytes in innate immunity and activation of adaptive responses to the role of cellular and humoral immunity in immune clearance and protection. What is known of the immune response to other bacterial infections and in particular infections that have emerged recently as major problems in poultry production including Campylobacter jejuni, Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Clostridium perfringens are discussed.Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2013; 41(3). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2013.04.008 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins (Apl_AvBDs), Apl_AvBD4, 7 and 12, were identified successfully and characterized in tissues from Peking ducks in the present study. The cDNA fragment of Apl_AvBD4 contained 171 bp, and encoded 56 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequences of Apl_AvBD7 and 12 contained 204 bp and 198 bp open reading frames, which encoded 67 and 65 amino acids, respectively. Both recombinant and synthetic forms of the three Apl_AvBDs showed antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria investigated, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Salmonella choleraesuis. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all the three Apl_AvBDs decreased significantly in 150 mM NaCl. Significant antiviral activity of the three Apl_AvBDs was shown against duck hepatitis virus (DHV). However, none of the Apl_AvBDs showed significant hemolytic activity. Additionally, the expressions of the three Apl_AvBDs in response to DHV infection was highly variable, and significant upregulation of Apl_AvBD7 in liver was found in response to infection at different time points. Expression of Apl_AvBD4 in thymus, and of Apl_AvBD7 in bone marrow was induced in a time-dependent fashion by DHV infection. In contrast, expression of Apl_AvBD12 was found to be significantly decreased, and was hard to detect in cecal tonsil, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of ducks at some time points after DHV infection. The present results demonstrate that Apl_AvBDs play vital roles in the immune response of ducks against bacterial and viral pathogens.Molecular Immunology 08/2011; 49(1-2):84-96. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2011.07.019 · 3.00 Impact Factor