Contemporary management of congenital malformations of the heart in infants with Ellis - van Creveld syndrome: a report of nine cases

Division of Cardiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, United States of America.
Cardiology in the Young (Impact Factor: 0.86). 11/2010; 21(2):145-52. DOI: 10.1017/S1047951110001587
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ellis - van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder manifest by short-limb dwarfism, thoracic dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth, and an approximately 60% incidence of congenital malformations of the heart. Despite patients with Ellis - van Creveld syndrome being regarded as having a high surgical risk, few data are available regarding their outcomes following surgery for congenital malformations of the heart in the current era.
In this retrospective report, we summarise the clinical observations and outcomes of nine infants with Ellis - van Creveld syndrome who underwent surgery for congenital malformations of the heart between 2004 and 2009.
We identified 15 patients with Ellis - van Creveld syndrome during the study period; 11 (73%) had haemodynamically significant congenital malformations of the heart warranting surgery. In two of these patients, surgery was not performed. Of the nine patients who underwent surgery, all of whom were infants, eight (89%) had various forms of an atrioventricular septal defect and one patient (11%) had hypoplastic left heart syndrome (mitral and aortic atresia). Among the nine patients who underwent surgery, four (44%) died at a median of 102 days with a range of 25-149 days post-operatively, mostly from respiratory failure. Respiratory morbidity was seen in all surviving patients, of whom three underwent tracheostomy.
Surgery for congenital malformations of the heart can be successful in infants with Ellis - van Creveld syndrome, but mortality is high and post-operative respiratory morbidity should be expected.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a rare condition associated with a very high incidence of congenital malformations of the heart. Prior reports have suggested increased morbidity and mortality following surgery for congenital malformations of the heart in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Materials and methods The Pediatric Health Information System database, an administrative database containing data from 43 free-standing paediatric hospitals in North America, was queried to search for patients with the diagnostic code for Ellis-van Creveld syndrome between 2004 and 2011. Those patients who underwent cardiac procedures were compared with those who did not with respect to measures of healthcare utilisation. A total of 138 admissions occurred in 93 patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome during the study period. Of these, 74% had an underlying diagnosis of congenital malformations of the heart. Half of the patients in the sample underwent a cardiac surgical or interventional catheterisation procedure. Patients who underwent a cardiac procedure had a longer hospital length of stay, higher incidence of intensive care unit admission, and higher total and per day hospital charges than patients who did not undergo cardiac surgery during admission. In a large group of inpatients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, the prevalence of congenital malformations of the heart was similar to that reported in prior studies. Cardiac surgical and interventional procedures appear to drive a substantial portion of healthcare utilisation in these patients.
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