Genetic variability of concentration of microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids
ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sunflower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni) and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba) micronutrients were analyzed. Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sunflower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3), Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3), Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2), Helianthus annuus L. (4) were included in the experiment. Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentration. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and particular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and 59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild populations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8. Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild species. The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such plants.
Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke / Proc. Nat. Sci, Matica Srpska Novi Sad,
¥ 118, 69—77, 2010
R u d o l f R. K a s t o r i1, I v a n a V. M a k s i m o v i ã1,
R a d o v a n Z. M a r i n k o v i ã2, T i j a n a M. Z e r e m s k i - Š k o r i ã2,
J o r d a n a N. N i n k o v2, M a r i n a I. P u t n i k - D e l i ã1
1Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradoviãa 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
2Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, M. Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CONCENTRATION
OF MICROELEMENTS IN WILD SUNFLOWER
SPECIES AND HYBRIDS*
ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sun-
flower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu,
Fe and Ni) and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba) micronutrients were analyzed.
Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sun-
flower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3), Helianthus
agrophyllus T&G (3), Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2), Helianthus annuus L. (4) were inclu-
ded in the experiment.
Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect
to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher
in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentra-
tion. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and par-
ticular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and
59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8.
Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild popu-
lations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8.
Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for
Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild
The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in
wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of
microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or
excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in
breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate
microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of
microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such plants.
KEY WORDS: wild sunflower species, populations, hybrids, essential, non-essential,
* The paper presents a part of the results obtained during the researching conducted under the
project The study of the genetic specificity of mineral nutrition of hybrids and wild sunflower species
financed by the Ministry of science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.
Plants belonging to the genus Helianthus are widely present all over our
planet. Various climatic and edaphic conditions resulted in appearance of spe-
cies that are variable in their morphology and biological characteristics, one of
which is mineral nutrition. Breeding process imposed by human activities sti-
mulated an increase in genetic variability of mineral nutrition of some species
and genotypes of sunflower. The first reports about varietal differences in
plant nutrition were published in the middle of last century (V o s e, 1963).
Since then, in many studies the existence of genetic variability in mineral nu-
trition between species and genotypes was confirmed (E p s t e i n, 1972; K l i -
m a š e v s k i, 1974; S a r i ã, 1981). This specificity refers to the temporal
dynamics of nutrient uptake and accumulation, plant sensitivity to nutrient
shortage or excess, nutrient distribution in plants, etc. (K a s t o r i, 1983).
In sunflower, genetic specificity of mineral nutrition was examined preva-
lently in different lines and hybrids (F o y et al., 1974; S f r e d o et al., 1985;
K a s t o r i and S t a n k o v i ã, 1985; V r e b a l o v, 1987; K r s t i ã and S a -
r i ã, 1991; K a s t o r i et al., 2008), and to a much lesser extent in wild
sunflower species (K r s t i ã and S a r i ã, 1987; S e i l e r and C a m p b e l l,
2004; S e i l e r and C a m p b e l l, 2006). The knowledge of specific nutrient
requirements of a crop is important both theoretically and practically. It allows
farmers to optimize plant mineral nutrition, which in turn makes room for
maximum utilization of genetic potential for yield and quality of various crops
and particular genotypes.
Environmental pollution with heavy metals and radionuclides, which re-
sults from human activities, has serious implications on the production of safe
agricultural products. It was found that sunflower could be successfully em-
ployed for decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals and radionucli-
des (A d l e r, 1996). In Ukraine, 30 km from Chernobyl, rhizofiltration was
used together with phytoextraction for decontamination, and the best result
was obtained with sunflower (S o r o c h i n s k y, 1998). D u s h e n k o v et al.
(1995) found in the laboratory that within 24 h roots of sunflower plants were
able to substantially reduce the levels of Cd, Cr (VI), Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, U
(VI), and Zn in water, bringing metal content close to or below the discharge
limits. Sunflower is also able to accumulate137Cs and90Sr. Roots of sunflower
accumulated up to eight times more
pratense L.) or foxtail (Alopecurus pratense L.). The ability of sunflower to
accumulate uranium (U) was reported by S a l t et al. (1998) and J o v a n o -
v i ã et al. (2001). Apart from the fact that sunflower intensely takes up some
heavy metals and radionuclides, it also has high biomass, enabling it to accu-
mulate and extract significant amounts of pollutants from the rhizosphere.
Cited results suggest that sunflower may be suitable for remediation of
soils and waters polluted with heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, the
aim of this study was to assess the capacity of some populations of wild
sunflower species and hybrids to take up microelements important from agro-
nomical point of view, i.e. B, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Ni, but also of the other,
potentially toxic elements: Pb, Cd, As, Cr, Al, and Ba.
137Cs than the roots of timothy (Phleum
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Plants were grown on weakly calcareous chernozem of good physical and
chemical properties (Tab. 1). At flowering, completely developed upper leaves,
which are physiologically the most active (Ã u p i n a and S a k a å, 1989),
were taken for the analyses. Micronutrient concentration was analyzed in diffe-
rent populations of wild sunflower species from Northern America (number of
populations per species is given in parenthesis): Helianthus neglectus Heiser
(3), Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2), Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3), Heli-
anthus annuus L. (4) as well as in five sunflower hybrids the most grown in
Serbia. Micronutrient content was determined by ICP. The data were statisti-
cally processed by analysis of variance, calculation of the least significant dif-
ference (LSD), standard deviation, and coefficient of variation using Statistica
8 computer program.
Table 1. Basic soil properties
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Concentration of analyzed essential microelements varied between popu-
lations of wild sunflower species as well as hybrids, suggesting that there is
significant genetic specificity with respect to uptake and accumulation of micro-
elements in analyzed genotypes (Tab. 2). Average values of microelement con-
centrations in wild species and hybrids were the most variable with respect to
Mn concentration, which was significantly higher in hybrids. Comparison
between the results obtained in hybrids with corresponding values for micro-
elements available in the literature, significant discrepancies are noticed. Con-
centrations of Fe, B and Mn were significantly higher in hybrids while Zn
concentration was lower that was found by R o b i n s o n (1970, 1973), P a i s
(1980), and B e r g m a n (1986). Concentrations of essential microelements
shown here correspond to the results that in similar agroecological conditions
obtained K o v a å e v i ã (1986). Higher concentration of essential microele-
ments in hybrids suggests that the soil on which plants were grown was, in
spite of weak alkaline reaction, well supplied with microelements in the forms
available to plants (U b a v i ã et al., 1993). Especially high was B concentra-
tion, which in hybrids was 165 mg/kg DW in average. Sunflower indeed has
high requirements for B (B l a m e y et al., 1978), which is in accordance with
our results. In hybrids, the highest variation from the average was found in
hybrid NS-H-45, in which concentration of nearly all analyzed elements was
significantly lower as compared to the other hybrids. To the best of our
knowledge, concentration of microelements in different populations of wild
sunflower species has not been studied thus far. In some populations of Heli-
anthus agrophylus high Fe concentrations were recorded.
Concentration of a microelement in plant tissues signifies the need of a
plant for such an element and therefore such data are of primary biotechnical
significance. The knowledge about the accumulation of non-essential microele-
ments may help to choose the species and genotypes for phytoremediation of
soils polluted with heavy metals. In Tab. 3 are shown concentrations of
non-essential microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids. In all po-
pulations of wild species and in hybrids Al had higher concentration than Ba,
Cr, Pb, and As whereas concentration of Cd was the least. There was espe-
cially high concentration of Al, Pb, and As in some populations of Helianthus
agrophyllus. Of tested hybrids, the highest concentration of all analyzed ele-
ments was found in NS-H-111, and especially high were concentrations of Cr
and Al. Relatively high As concentration in analyzed genotypes may be ex-
plained by high As concentration in underground waters of South Baåka,
where the plants were grown. Accumulation of Pb in plants was most probably
enhanced by the vicinity of highway. Concentration of non-essential microele-
ments in sunflower was studied extensively in the past. S i m o n (1998) and
S i m o n et al. (1999) studied the accumulation and distribution of Cd in
sunflower. In leaves of sunflower, grown on calcareous Chernozem, they
found the following concentrations of non-essential microelements (mg/kg): As
0.03, Ba 5.4, Cd 0.2, Cr 0.1, and Pb 0.0. These values were much lower than
values found in hybrids tested in our experiment. K á d á r and P á l v ö l g y i
(2003) found that sunflower accumulated low amounts of tested elements even
when high doses were applied to the soil (810 kg/ha). They concluded that, in
spite of high biomass production, sunflower is not suitable for phytoremedia-
tion of heavy metal-contaminated soils. At the same time, it is necessary to
note that cited authors included only one genotype in their study. The data on
the concentration of non-essential microelements in wild sunflower species are
not known so far.
Results presented here suggest that there is high genetic variability be-
tween populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids in the uptake and tis-
sue concentration of essential and non-essential microelements. This is suppor-
ted by high coefficient of variation of concentration of some microelements in
wild species and in hybrids. Coefficient of variation between populations of
some wild species was element-depended and for essential elements varied
between 3.7 and 59.5. For hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of
variation depended both on genotype and on the element. Average coefficient
of variation between populations of wild species had the following order:
Cd>Ni>Cr>As>Al>B>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ba>Pb>Mn, and when hybrids were compa-
red: Cr>Ni>Zn>Al>Fe>As>Cu>B>Ba>Cd>Pb>Mn (Tab. 2, Tab. 3). Although
analyzed populations of wild sunflower species are quite distant as compared
to hybrids, they all have low coefficient of variation for Mn and Pb concentra-
tion, and high for Ni and Cr. Based on presented data, one can speculate that
analyzed genotypes also differ in their tolerance to the deficiency and excess
of microelements. This feature of wild species can be used in breeding pro-
cess. However, genotypes in which concentration of microelement(s) was above
the average may be suitable for phytoremediation, especially hybrids, because
they produce more biomass.
Tab. 2 — Content of essential microelements in populations of wild sunflower species and
hybrids (mg/kg DM)
GenotypesZnB Mn Cu FeNi
LSD for species and hybrids
Tab. 3 — Content of non-essential microelements in populations of wild sunflower species and
hybrids (mg/kg DM)
LSD for species and hybrids
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SADRŸAJ MIKROELEMENATA U POPULACIJAMA DIVQIH VRSTA
SUNCOKRETA I HIBRIDA
Rudolf R. Kastori1, Ivana V. Maksimoviã1, Radovan Z. Marinkoviã2,
Tijana M. Zeremski-Škoriã2, Marina I. Putnik-Deliã1
1Poqoprivredni fakultet, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradoviãa 8,
Novi Sad, Srbija
2Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Maksima Gorkog 30,
Novi Sad, Srbija
U ciqu prouåavawa genetske specifiånosti ishrane suncokreta mikroele-
mentima ispitan je sadrÿaj neophodnih (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe i Ni) i ne neophod-
nih mikroelemenata (Cr, Al, Cd, As Pb i Ba) u pet najrasprostrawenijih hibri-
da suncokreta u Srbiji kao i u razliåitim populacijama divqih vrsta sunco-
kreta poreklom iz Severne Amerike: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3), Helianthus
agrophyllus T&G (3), Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2), Helianthus annuus L. (4).
Ispitivane populacije divqih vrsta suncokreta i hibrida znaåajno su se
meðusobno razlikovale u pogledu sadrÿaja ispitivanih mikroelemenata. Najve-
ãa razlika izmeðu populacija divqih vrsta suncokreta i hibrida utvrðena je u
sadrÿaju Mn koji je kod hibrida bio znaåajno veãi. Kod svih ispitivanih geno-
tipova najveãi je bio sadrÿaj Fe, B i Mn. Koeficijent varijacije sadrÿaja mi-
kroelemenata zavisio je od genotipa i elementa. Kod populacija divqih vrsta
suncokreta kretao se od 3.7 do 59.5, a kod hibrida od 10.0 do 48.8. Za neesenci-
jalne mikroelemente kod divqih populacija koeficijent je bio izmeðu 7.7, i
73.8, dok je kod hibrida varirao od 15.1 do 48.8. Koeficijent varijacije bio je
najmawi kod Mn i Pb kod divqih vrsta i hibrida. Kod hibrida najveãi koefi-
cijent varijacije imali su Cr, Ni i Zn, a kod divqih vrsta Cd, Ni i Cr.
Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata moÿe se zakquåiti da je genetiåka speci-
fiånost u pogledu usvajawa neophodnih i drugih mikroelemenata kod populaci-
ja divqih vrsta suncokreta i hibrida veoma izraÿena. Široka genetska varija-
bilnost ispitivanih genotipova u pogledu sadrÿaja pojedinih mikroelemenata
upuãuje na pretpostavku o razliåitoj reakciji prema wihovom nedostatku i su-
višku, što moÿe da bude od znaåaja u oplemewivaåkom radu, posebno pri stva-
rawu genotipova podesnih za fitoremedijaciju zemqišta zagaðenih mikroele-