Work disability following major organisational change: the Whitehall II study
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Privatisation and private sector practices have been increasingly applied to the public sector in many industrialised countries. Over the same period, long-term work disability has risen substantially. We examined whether a major organisational change--the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines--was associated with an increased risk of work disability. METHODS: The study uses self-reported data from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study. Associations between transfer to an executive agency assessed at baseline (1991-1994) and work disability ascertained over a period of approximately 8 years at three follow-up surveys (1995-1996, 1997-1999 and 2001) were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted models, risk of work disability was higher among the 1263 employees who were transferred to an executive agency (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.48) compared with the 3419 employees whose job was not transferred. These findings were robust to additional adjustment for physical and mental health and health behaviours at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Increased work disability was observed among employees exposed to the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines. This may highlight an unintentional cost for employees, employers and society.
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- " show increased mortality [ Martikainen et al . , 2008 ] , suggesting that long - term job stability may compensate for the more temporary stress of downsizing [ Siegrist et al . , 2011 ] . Privatization : One study of British civil servants , whose agency was privatized , showed a 90% elevated risk of work disability over 8 years of follow - up [ Virtanen et al . , 2010 ] . Another study showed increases in body mass index , ischemia , cholesterol , and , for women , blood pressure , but little change in health behaviors over 5 years of follow - up , compared to those who remained in the civil service [ Ferrie et al . , 1998 ] . A systematic review of 11 studies found some evidence of increases in stre"
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Changes in employment conditions in the global economy over the past 30 years have led to increased job insecurity and other work organization hazards. These hazards may play a role in creating and sustaining occupational health disparities by socioeconomic position, gender, race, ethnicity, and immigration status. METHODS: A conceptual model was developed to guide the review of 103 relevant articles or chapters on the role of work organization and occupational health disparities identified through a comprehensive search conducted by NIOSH. A second review was conducted of employment and workplace policies and programs designed to reduce the health and safety risks due to job insecurity and other work organization hazards. RESULTS: There is consistent evidence that workers in lower socioeconomic or social class positions are exposed to greater job insecurity and other work organization hazards than workers in higher socioeconomic positions. Likewise, racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants are exposed to greater job insecurity. Limited research examining the effects of interventions targeting work organization hazards on disparities has been conducted; nonetheless, intervention strategies are available and evidence suggests they are effective. CONCLUSIONS: Job insecurity and work organization hazards play a role in creating and sustaining occupational health disparities. Employment and workplace policies and programs have the potential to reduce these hazards, and to reduce disparities. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 05/2014; 57(5). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22126 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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- "Evening and night work among Danish nurses was associated with disability retirement even when sociodemographics, psychosocial and physical working conditions were considered . Transfer from public sector to executive agencies in Britain led to increased work disability among employees when sociodemographics, socioeconomic position and health, but not working conditions, were considered . Among Finnish employees, low employee control over working times predicted disability retirement, in particular due to musculoskeletal diseases . "
ABSTRACT: Early retirement due to disability is a public health and work environment problem that shortens working careers. Transition to disability retirement is based on ill-health, but working conditions are also of relevance. We examined the contributions of work arrangements, physical working conditions and psychosocial working conditions to subsequent disability retirement. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Information on working conditions was obtained from the baseline surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002. These data were linked with register data on disability retirement and their main diagnoses obtained from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Follow up by the end of 2008 yielded 525 disability retirement events. The analysed data included 6525 participants and 525 disability retirement events. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Several working conditions showed own associations with disability retirement before adjustment. After adjustment for all working conditions, the primary risk factors for all-cause disability retirement were physical workload among women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.59) and men (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.38), and low job control among women (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.99). In addition, for disability retirement due to musculoskeletal causes, the risk factors were physical workload and low job control. For disability retirement due to mental causes the risk factors were computer work and low job control. Furthermore, occupational class was a risk factor for disability retirement due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases. Among various working conditions, those that are physically demanding and those that imply low job control are potential risk factors for disability retirement. Improving the physical working environment and enhancing control over one's job is likely to help prevent early retirement due to disability.BMC Public Health 04/2012; 12(1):309. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-309 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study explored the association of unemployment and an increased risk of receiving disability pension, and the possibility that this risk is attributed to municipality-specific characteristics. A cohort of 7,985 40-42 year olds was followed for 18 years in national registers, identifying new episodes of unemployment and cases of disability pension. The association between an unemployment period and disability pension in the subsequent year was estimated using discrete time multilevel logistic regressions and clustering individuals by municipality. The association between unemployment and disability pension was adjusted for age in the follow up-period, sex, baseline health status, health behaviour and education level. A conditional intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was estimated as a measure of inter-municipality variance. In the follow-up period, 2784 (35%) of the participants were granted disability pension. The crude odds ratio for receiving disability pension after unemployment (adjusted for age in follow-up period and sex only) was 1.42 (95% CI 1.1-1.8). Adjusting for baseline health indicators reduced the odds ratio of unemployment to 1.33 (CI 1.1-1.7). A fully adjusted model, including education level, further reduced the odds ratio of unemployment to 1.25 (CI 1.00-1.6). The ICC of the municipality level was approximately 2%. Becoming unemployed increased the risk of receiving subsequent disability pension. However, adjusting for baseline health status, health behaviour and education attenuated this impact considerably. The multilevel analysis indicated that a minor, yet statistically significant, proportion of the risk of disability pension can be attributed to the municipality of residence.BMC Public Health 02/2012; 12(1):148. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-148 · 2.32 Impact Factor