Gonadal steroids modulate Fas-induced apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes.
ABSTRACT We have previously reported that Fas activation induces apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells from rats at proestrus but not at diestrus and in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Fas activation on apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes during the estrous cycle and explored the action of gonadal steroids on Fas-induced apoptosis. Also, we studied whether changes in Fas expression are involved in the apoptotic response of anterior pituitary cells. Fas activation increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive lactotropes and somatotropes at proestrus but not at diestrus. FasL triggered apoptosis of somatotropes only when cells from ovariectomized rats were cultured in the presence of 17 β-estradiol (E2). Progesterone (P4) blocked the apoptotic action of the Fas/FasL system in lactotropes and somatotropes incubated with E2. Both E2 and P4 increased the percentage of cells expressing Fas at the cell membrane. Our results show that Fas activation induces apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes at proestrus but not at diestrus. Gonadal steroids may be involved in the apoptotic response of lactotropes and somatotropes, suggesting that Fas activation is implicated in the renewal of these pituitary subpopulations during the estrous cycle. The effect of gonadal steroids on Fas expression may be only partially involved in regulation of the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in the anterior pituitary gland.
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular pathways leading from membrane receptor engagement to apoptotic cell death are still poorly characterized. We investigated the intracellular signaling generated after cross-linking of CD95 (Fas/Apo-1 antigen), a broadly expressed cell surface receptor whose engagement results in triggering of cellular apoptotic programs. DX2, a new functional anti-CD95 monoclonal antibody was produced by immunizing mice with human CD95-transfected L cells. Crosslinking of CD95 with DX2 resulted in the activation of a sphingomyelinase (SMase) in promyelocytic U937 cells, as well as in other human tumor cell lines and in CD95-transfected murine cells, as demonstrated by induction of in vivo sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis and generation of ceramide. Direct in vitro measurement of enzymatic activity within CD95-stimulated U937 cell extracts, using labeled SM vesicles as substrates, showed strong SMase activity, which required pH 5.0 for optimal substrate hydrolysis. Finally, all CD95-sensitive cell lines tested could be induced to undergo apoptosis after exposure to cell-permeant C2-ceramide. These data indicate that CD95 cross-linking induces SM breakdown and ceramide production through an acidic SMase, thus providing the first information regarding early signal generation from CD95, and may be relevant in defining the biochemical nature of intracellular messengers leading to apoptotic cell death.Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/1994; 180(4):1547-52. · 13.21 Impact Factor
Article: The Fas death factor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fas ligand (FasL), a cell surface molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family, binds to its receptor Fas, thus inducing apoptosis of Fas-bearing cells. Various cells express Fas, whereas FasL is expressed predominantly in activated T cells. In the immune system, Fas and FasL are involved in down-regulation of immune reactions as well as in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Malfunction of the Fas system causes lymphoproliferative disorders and accelerates autoimmune diseases, whereas its exacerbation may cause tissue destruction.Science 04/1995; 267(5203):1449-56. · 31.03 Impact Factor