Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations are frequent in astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. We previously reported the generation of a mutation-specific antibody that specifically detects R132H mutated IDH1 protein (clone H09). Here, we investigate the feasibility of H09 immunohistochemistry to differentiate between oligodendrogliomas/oligoastrocytomas and other tumors with similar morphology. A total of 274 brain tumors presenting with focal or extensive clear cell morphology were investigated. High numbers of H09-positive cases were observed in adult grade II oligodendrogliomas (67 of 74, 91%), grade III oligodendrogliomas (65 of 69, 94%), grade II oligoastrocytomas (11 of 14, 79%) and grade III oligoastrocytomas (10 of 11, 91%). All cases of pediatric oligodendrogliomas (n = 7), neurocytomas (n = 41, 35 central, 4 extraventricular, 2 cerebellar liponeurocytomas), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 21), clear cell ependymomas (n = 8), clear cell meningiomas (n = 9) as well as 12 primary glioblastomas with oligodendroglial differentiation and 5 pilocytic astrocytomas with oligodendroglial-like differentiation were negative for H09 immunohistochemistry. Three oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation had evidence of IDH1/IDH2 mutations either by H09 immunohistochemistry or direct sequencing. We conclude that in tumors with an oligodendroglioma-like morphology, binding of H09 is highly specific for oligodendrogliomas or oligoastrocytomas and substantially helps in the discrimination from other clear cell tumors. Negative H09 immunohistochemistry of an adult oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma should prompt the consideration of other clear cell neoplasms. Further, our observations firmly assign oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation to the group of oligodendrogliomas and demonstrate that H09 is especially helpful for the difficult discrimination of such lesions from extraventricular neurocytomas.
"We consider this as important evidence for excluding any semi-malignant tumor mimicking LEAT variants, i.e., if only fragmented surgical specimens are available for diagnostic review and evidence for entrapped preexisting neuronal subpopulations is difficult to obtain. Mutation-specific antibodies directed against the IDH1 enzyme are important markers highly recognized in diffuse gliomas [3, 18, 19, 37, 60], and should be also encountered in the histopathologic LEAT work-up panel to identify and differentiate diffuse glioma variants. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Every fourth patient submitted to epilepsy surgery suffers from a brain tumor. Microscopically, these neoplasms present with a wide-ranging spectrum of glial or glio-neuronal tumor subtypes. Gangliogliomas (GG) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) are the most frequently recognized entities accounting for 65 % of 1,551 tumors collected at the European Epilepsy Brain Bank (n = 5,842 epilepsy surgery samples). These tumors often present with early seizure onset at a mean age of 16.5 years, with 77 % of neoplasms affecting the temporal lobe. Relapse and malignant progression are rare events in this particular group of brain tumors. Surgical resection should be regarded, therefore, also as important treatment strategy to prevent epilepsy progression as well as seizure- and medication-related comorbidities. The characteristic clinical presentation and broad histopathological spectrum of these highly epileptogenic brain tumors will herein be classified as "long-term epilepsy associated tumors-LEATs". LEATs differ from most other brain tumors by early onset of spontaneous seizures, and conceptually are regarded as developmental tumors to explain their pleomorphic microscopic appearance and frequent association with Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type IIIb. However, the broad neuropathologic spectrum and lack of reliable histopathological signatures make these tumors difficult to classify using the WHO system of brain tumors. As another consequence from poor agreement in published LEAT series, molecular diagnostic data remain ambiguous. Availability of surgical tissue specimens from patients which have been well characterized during their presurgical evaluation should open the possibility to systematically address the origin and epileptogenicity of LEATs, and will be further discussed herein. As a conclusion, the authors propose a novel A-B-C terminology of epileptogenic brain tumors ("epileptomas") which hopefully promote the discussion between neuropathologists, neurooncologists and epileptologists. It must be our future mission to achieve international consensus for the clinico-pathological classification of LEATs that would also involve World Health Organization (WHO) and the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE).
"The molecular findings in this tumor, which demonstrate 1p/19q co-deletion (including homozygosus deletion of a few markers) could also support an oligodendroglioma diagnosis, although these molecular alterations are rare in pediatric oligodendrogliomas
. The absence of IDH1 mutations also agrees with the data in pediatric gliomas, including oligodendrogliomas
[36,37]. Recent reports have identified no IDH1 mutations with variable allelic constitutions for 1p/19q (including co-deletion to no loss) in disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumors in pediatric patients
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric oligodendrogliomas are rare and appear to show a different molecular profile from adult tumors. Some gliomas display allelic losses at 1p/19q in pediatric patients, although less frequently than in adult patients, but this is rare in tumors with an oligodendroglial component. The molecular basis of this genomic abnormality is unknown in pediatric gliomas, but it represents a relatively common finding in pediatric oligodendroglioma-like neoplasms with leptomeningeal dissemination.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis using SALSA P088-B1 for the analysis of the 1p/19q allelic constitution in a pediatric anaplastic (oligodendro)-glioma showed homozygous co-deletion for markers: TNFRSF4 (located at 1p36.33), TP73 (1p36.32), PPAP2B (1pter-p22.1), DPYD (1p21.3), and PDCD5 (19q13.12), and hemizygous deletion of BAX (19q13.3-q13.4). No sequence changes for R132 and R172 of the IDH1/2 genes were identified.
The molecular findings in this pediatric anaplastic glioma do not allow for a clearly definitive pathological diagnosis. However, the findings provide data on a number of 1p/19q genomic regions that, because of homozygotic deletion, might be the location of genes that are important for the development and clinical evolution of some malignant gliomas in children.
"Oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation may show synaptophysinpositive neuropil islands and rosettes but usually lack the NeuN nuclear immunoreactivity of neurocytomas. In addition presence of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation strongly favors diagnosis of oligodendroglioma over neurocytoma (Capper et al., 2011). "
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