Impact of early transcranial Doppler screening and intensive therapy on cerebral vasculopathy outcome in a newborn sickle cell anemia cohort.
ABSTRACT Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is used to detect children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) who are at risk for stroke, and transfusion programs significantly reduce stroke risk in patients with abnormal TCD. We describe the predictive factors and outcomes of cerebral vasculopathy in the Créteil newborn SCA cohort (n = 217 SS/Sβ(0)), who were early and yearly screened with TCD since 1992. Magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography was performed every 2 years after age 5 (or earlier in case of abnormal TCD). A transfusion program was recommended to patients with abnormal TCD and/or stenoses, hydroxyurea to symptomatic patients in absence of macrovasculopathy, and stem cell transplantation to those with human leukocyte antigen-genoidentical donor. Mean follow-up was 7.7 years (1609 patient-years). The cumulative risks by age 18 years were 1.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.6%-5.9%) for overt stroke, 29.6% (95% CI 22.8%-38%) for abnormal TCD, which reached a plateau at age 9, whereas they were 22.6% (95% CI 15.0%-33.2%) for stenosis and 37.1% (95% CI 26.3%-50.7%) for silent stroke by age 14. Cumulating all events (stroke, abnormal TCD, stenoses, silent strokes), the cerebral risk by age 14 was 49.9% (95% CI 40.5%-59.3%); the independent predictive factors for cerebral risk were baseline reticulocytes count (hazard ratio 1.003/L × 10(9)/L increase, 95% CI 1.000-1.006; P = .04) and lactate dehydrogenase level (hazard ratio 2.78/1 IU/mL increase, 95% CI1.33-5.81; P = .007). Thus, early TCD screening and intensification therapy allowed the reduction of stroke-risk by age 18 from the previously reported 11% to 1.9%. In contrast, the 50% cumulative cerebral risk suggests the need for more preventive intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Background Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) measures blood flow velocities in the large cerebral vessels and thus, detects the risk of stroke. This report describes a capacity building program which enabled the use of TCD for detecting stroke risk and also describes the pattern of non-imaging TCD examinations seen in Nigerian children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA).ProcedureTen university graduates were trained on the use of TCD in a 5-day capacity building workshop after which, the three best candidates were employed to provide a 5-day a week TCD screening service in Lagos. Data from TCD examination collected between March 2011 and September 2013 were analysed and reported.ResultBetween March 2011 and September 2013, 2,331 children with SCA aged 2–16 years had TCD studies. TCD's findings were classified as normal (standard risk) in 70.4%, conditional in 19% and abnormal (high risk) in 9.3%. The majority of children (76.9%) in the high risk category were aged 2–8 years. TCD study was inadequate for risk categorisation in 1.3% of the patients.Conclusion Effective capacity building of middle level manpower is feasible and can provide a credible TCD screening service to communities with a high demand and a shortage of trained professionals. The pattern of TCD abnormalities seen in Africa are comparable to those obtained in several previous worldwide reports. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 08/2014; 61(12). · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Silent cerebral infarcts are the most common neurologic injury in children with sickle cell anemia and are associated with the recurrence of an infarct (stroke or silent cerebral infarct). We tested the hypothesis that the incidence of the recurrence of an infarct would be lower among children who underwent regular blood-transfusion therapy than among those who received standard care. METHODS: In this randomized, single-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned children with sickle cell anemia to receive regular blood transfusions (transfusion group) or standard care (observation group). Participants were between 5 and 15 years of age, with no history of stroke and with one or more silent cerebral infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging and a neurologic examination showing no abnormalities corresponding to these lesions. The primary end point was the recurrence of an infarct, defined as a stroke or a new or enlarged silent cerebral infarct. RESULTS: A total of 196 children (mean age, 10 years) were randomly assigned to the observation or transfusion group and were followed for a median of 3 years. In the transfusion group, 6 of 99 children (6%) had an end-point event (1 had a stroke, and 5 had new or enlarged silent cerebral infarcts). In the observation group, 14 of 97 children (14%) had an end-point event (7 had strokes, and 7 had new or enlarged silent cerebral infarcts). The incidence of the primary end point in the transfusion and observation groups was 2.0 and 4.8 events, respectively, per 100 years at risk, corresponding to an incidence rate ratio of 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.99; P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Regular blood-transfusion therapy significantly reduced the incidence of the recurrence of cerebral infarct in children with sickle cell anemia. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00072761, and Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN52713285.)New England Journal of Medicine 08/2014; 371(8):699-710. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances achieved over the last three decades have transformed sickle cell disease (SCD) from a fatal childhood disease to a long-term chronic condition. Consequently, patients must transition from paediatric to adult care. The transition is a high-risk period associated with increases in hospital admissions and death. The factors underlying this increased risk include not only characteristics of the disease itself, with the accumulation of disabilities and progression of organ damage, but also psychological factors and a frequent paucity of adult-care resources for SCD. Leaving the familiar paediatric team causes marked anxiety in many patients. The transition of care coincides with the many other transitions that characterize the emotional, social and academic development of adolescents. The shift from protection by parents and physicians to independent self-management may be difficult. Finally, young adults may have limited access to health insurance. In recent years, many medical groups have suggested the development of transitioning programmes combining transition schedules, printed and web-based materials, and, in some cases, transition-dedicated physicians, nurses and psychologists. Transition must begin early, involve both the paediatric and the adult team, direct appropriate attention to the parents and occur over a period of several years. Evaluations of these programmes are urgently needed.British Journal of Haematology 03/2014; 164(5):630-5. · 4.94 Impact Factor