Mutation analysis of 18 nephronophthisis associated ciliopathy disease genes using a DNA pooling and next generation sequencing strategy.
ABSTRACT Nephronophthisis associated ciliopathies (NPHP-AC) comprise a group of autosomal recessive cystic kidney diseases that includes nephronophthisis (NPHP), Senior-Loken syndrome (SLS), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), and Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS). To date, causative mutations in NPHP-AC have been described for 18 different genes, rendering mutation analysis tedious and expensive. To overcome the broad genetic locus heterogeneity, a strategy of DNA pooling with consecutive massively parallel resequencing (MPR) was devised.
In 120 patients with severe NPHP-AC phenotypes, five pools of genomic DNA with 24 patients each were prepared which were used as templates in order to PCR amplify all 376 exons of 18 NPHP-AC genes (NPHP1, INVS, NPHP3, NPHP4, IQCB1, CEP290, GLIS2, RPGRIP1L, NEK8, TMEM67, INPP5E, TMEM216, AHI1, ARL13B, CC2D2A, TTC21B, MKS1, and XPNPEP3). PCR products were then subjected to MPR on an Illumina Genome-Analyser and mutations were subsequently assigned to their respective mutation carrier via CEL I endonuclease based heteroduplex screening and confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
For proof of principle, DNA from patients with known mutations was used and detection of 22 out of 24 different alleles (92% sensitivity) was demonstrated. MPR led to the molecular diagnosis in 30/120 patients (25%) and 54 pathogenic mutations (27 novel) were identified in seven different NPHP-AC genes. Additionally, in 24 patients only single heterozygous variants of unknown significance were found.
The combined approach of DNA pooling followed by MPR strongly facilitates mutation analysis in broadly heterogeneous single gene disorders. The lack of mutations in 75% of patients in this cohort indicates further extensive heterogeneity in NPHP-AC.
SourceAvailable from: Angela Wandinger-Ness[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutation of the X-linked oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) gene is embryonic lethal in males and results in craniofacial malformations and adult onset polycystic kidney disease in females. While the OFD1 protein localizes to centriolar satellites, centrosomes and basal bodies, its cellular function and how it relates to cystic kidney disease is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OFD1 is assembled into a protein complex that is localized to the primary cilium and contains the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and domain organizing flotillin proteins. This protein complex, which has similarity to a basolateral adhesion domain formed during cell polarization, also contains the polycystin proteins that when mutant cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Importantly, in human ADPKD cells where mutant polycystin-1 fails to localize to cilia, there is a concomitant loss of localization of polycystin-2, OFD1, EGFR and flotillin-1 to cilia. Together, these data suggest that polycystins are necessary for assembly of a novel flotillin-containing ciliary signaling complex and provide a molecular rationale for the common renal pathologies caused by OFD1 and PKD mutations.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106330. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106330 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monosomy 1p36 syndrome is the most commonly observed subtelomeric deletion syndrome. Patients with this syndrome typically have common clinical features, such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, and characteristic craniofacial features.Brain and Development 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2014.08.002 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We recently reported that centrosomal protein 164 (CEP164) regulates both cilia and the DNA damage response in the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease nephronophthisis. Here we examine the functional role of CEP164 in nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies and concomitant fibrosis. Live cell imaging of RPE-FUCCI (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) cells after siRNA knockdown of CEP164 revealed an overall quicker cell cycle than control cells, although early S-phase was significantly longer. Follow-up FACS experiments with renal IMCD3 cells confirm that Cep164 siRNA knockdown promotes cells to accumulate in S-phase. We demonstrate that this effect can be rescued by human wild-type CEP164, but not disease-associated mutants. siRNA of CEP164 revealed a proliferation defect over time, as measured by CyQuant assays. The discrepancy between accelerated cell cycle and inhibited overall proliferation could be explained by induction of apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Reduction of CEP164 levels induces apoptosis in immunofluorescence, FACS and RT-QPCR experiments. Furthermore, knockdown of Cep164 or overexpression of dominant negative mutant allele CEP164 Q525X induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and concomitant upregulation of genes associated with fibrosis. Zebrafish injected with cep164 morpholinos likewise manifest developmental abnormalities, impaired DNA damage signaling, apoptosis and a pro-fibrotic response in vivo. This study reveals a novel role for CEP164 in the pathogenesis of nephronophthisis, in which mutations cause ciliary defects coupled with DNA damage induced replicative stress, cell death, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and suggests that these events drive the characteristic fibrosis observed in nephronophthisis kidneys.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004594. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004594 · 8.17 Impact Factor