Article

DNA damage and alterations in expression of DNA damage responsive genes induced by TiO2 nanoparticles in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology , Ljubljana , Slovenia.
Nanotoxicology (Impact Factor: 7.34). 11/2010; 5(3):341-53. DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2010.507316
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the genotoxic responses to two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (<25 nm anatase: TiO(2)-An, and <100 nm rutile: TiO2-Ru) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Under the applied exposure conditions the particles were agglomerated or aggregated with the size of agglomerates and aggregates in the micrometer range, and were not cytotoxic. TiO2-An, but not TiO2-Ru, caused a persistent increase in DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and oxidized purines (Fpg-comet). TiO2-An was a stronger inducer of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) than TiO2-Ru. Both types of TiO2 nanoparticles transiently upregulated mRNA expression of p53 and its downstream regulated DNA damage responsive genes (mdm2, gadd45α, p21), providing additional evidence that TiO2 nanoparticles are genotoxic. The observed differences in responses of HepG2 cells to exposure to anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles support the evidence that the toxic potential of TiO2 nanoparticles varies not only with particle size but also with crystalline structure.

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