DNA damage and alterations in expression of DNA damage responsive genes induced by TiO2 nanoparticles in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology , Ljubljana , Slovenia.
Nanotoxicology (Impact Factor: 7.84). 11/2010; 5(3):341-53. DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2010.507316
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the genotoxic responses to two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (<25 nm anatase: TiO(2)-An, and <100 nm rutile: TiO2-Ru) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Under the applied exposure conditions the particles were agglomerated or aggregated with the size of agglomerates and aggregates in the micrometer range, and were not cytotoxic. TiO2-An, but not TiO2-Ru, caused a persistent increase in DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and oxidized purines (Fpg-comet). TiO2-An was a stronger inducer of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) than TiO2-Ru. Both types of TiO2 nanoparticles transiently upregulated mRNA expression of p53 and its downstream regulated DNA damage responsive genes (mdm2, gadd45α, p21), providing additional evidence that TiO2 nanoparticles are genotoxic. The observed differences in responses of HepG2 cells to exposure to anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles support the evidence that the toxic potential of TiO2 nanoparticles varies not only with particle size but also with crystalline structure.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nanotechnology industry is growing rapidly, leading to concerns about the potential ecological consequences of the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. One challenge of assessing the ecological risks of ENMs is the incredible diversity of ENMs currently available and the rapid pace at which new ENMs are being developed. High-throughput screening (HTS) is a popular approach to assessing ENM cytotoxicity that offers the opportunity to rapidly test in parallel a wide range of ENMs at multiple concentrations. However, current HTS approaches generally test one cell type at a time, which limits their ability to predict responses of complex microbial communities. In this study toxicity screening via a HTS platform was used in combination with next generation sequencing (NGS) to assess responses of bacterial communities from two aquatic habitats, Lake Michigan (LM) and the Chicago River (CR), to short-term exposure in their native waters to several commercial TiO2 nanomaterials under simulated solar irradiation. Results demonstrate that bacterial communities from LM and CR differed in their sensitivity to nano-TiO2, with the community from CR being more resistant. NGS analysis revealed that the composition of the bacterial communities from LM and CR were significantly altered by exposure to nano-TiO2, including decreases in overall bacterial diversity, decreases in the relative abundance of Actinomycetales, Sphingobacteriales, Limnohabitans, and Flavobacterium, and a significant increase in Limnobacter. These results suggest that the release of nano-TiO2 to the environment has the potential to alter the composition of aquatic bacterial communities, which could have implications for the stability and function of aquatic ecosystems. The novel combination of HTS and NGS described in this study represents a major advance over current methods for assessing ENM ecotoxicity because the relative toxicities of multiple ENMs to thousands of naturally occurring bacterial species can be assessed simultaneously under environmentally relevant conditions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e106280. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.
    Nanotoxicology 07/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) have the potential to improve everyday life as they can be utilised in numerous medical applications and day-to-day consumer products. However, this increased use has led to concerns about the potential environmental and human health impacts. The protein p53 is a key transcription factor implicated in cellular defence and reparative responses to various stress factors. Additionally, p53 has been implicated in cellular responses following exposure to some MNMs. Here, the role of the MNM mediated p53 induction and activation and its downstream effects following exposure to five well-characterised materials [namely two types of TiO2, two carbon black (CB), and one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)] were investigated. MNM internalisation, cellular viability, p53 protein induction and activation, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were measured in murine cell line and primary pulmonary macrophage models. It was observed that p53 was implicated in the biological responses to MNMs, with oxidative stress associated with p53 activation (only following exposure to the SWCNT). We demonstrate that p53 acted as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in macrophage responses to SWCNT and CB NMs. However, p53 was neither involved in MNM-induced cellular toxicity, nor in the apoptosis induced by these MNMs. Moreover, the physicochemical characteristics of MNMs seemed to influence their biological effects-SWCNT the materials with the largest surface area and a fibrous shape were the most cytotoxic in this study and were capable of the induction and activation of p53.
    Archive für Toxikologie 08/2014; · 5.22 Impact Factor


Available from
May 26, 2014