Payer costs for inpatient treatment of pathologic fracture, surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression among patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Patients with bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer or multiple myeloma are predisposed to skeletal-related events (SREs), such as surgery or radiation to the bone, pathologic fracture, and spinal cord compression. Inpatient costs of these and other SREs represent an estimated 49%-59% of total costs related to SREs. However, information on payer costs for hospitalizations associated with SREs is limited, especially for costs associated with specific SREs by tumor type.
To examine costs from a payer perspective for SRE-associated hospitalizations among patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer.
Patients with SRE hospitalizations were selected from the MarketScan commercial and Medicare databases (January 1, 2003, through June 30, 2009). Sampled patients had at least 2 medical claims with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for prostate cancer, breast cancer, or multiple myeloma and at least 1 subsequent hospitalization with principal diagnosis or procedure codes indicating bone surgery, pathologic fracture, or spinal cord compression. For patients with prostate cancer or breast cancer, a diagnosis code for bone metastasis was also required. If secondary diagnoses or procedure codes for SREs were present in the claim, they were used to more precisely identify the type of SRE for which the patient was treated, resulting in 3 mutually exclusive categories: spinal cord compression with or without pathologic fracture and/or surgery to the bone; pathologic fracture with or without surgery to the bone; and only surgery to the bone. Related readmissions within 30 days of a previous SRE-associated hospitalization date of discharge were excluded to minimize the risk of underestimating costs. Mean health plan payments per hospitalization, measured as net reimbursed amounts paid by the health plan to a hospital after subtracting patient copayments and deductibles, were analyzed by cancer type and type of SRE.
A total of 555 patients contributed 572 hospitalizations that met the study criteria for prostate cancer, 1,413 patients contributed 1,542 hospitalizations for breast cancer, and 1,361 patients contributed 1,495 hospitalizations for multiple myeloma. The mean age range was 61 to 72 years, and the mean length of stay per admission was 5.9 to 11.6 days across the 3 tumor types. The ranges of mean health plan payment per hospital admission across tumor types were $43,691-$59,854 for spinal cord compression, with or without pathologic fracture and/or surgery to the bone; $22,390-$26,936 for pathologic fracture without spinal cord compression, with or without surgery to the bone; and $31,016-$42,094 for surgery to the bone without pathologic fracture or spinal cord compression.
The inpatient costs associated with treating SREs are significant from a payer perspective. Our study used a systematic process for patient selection and mutually exclusive categorization by SRE type and provides a per episode estimate of the inpatient financial impact of cancer related SREs assessed in this study from a third-party payer perspective.
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ABSTRACT: Cancer treatment, and in particular end-of-life treatment, is associated with substantial healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to analyse healthcare costs attributable to the treatment of patients with spinal metastases. The study population (n = 629) was identified from clinical databases in Denmark. Patients undergoing spinal metastasis treatment from January 2005 through June 2012 were included. Clinical data were merged with national register data on healthcare resource use, costs and death date. The analytic period ranged from treatment initiation until death or administrative censoring in October 2013. Analysis of both survival and costs were stratified into four treatment regimens of increasing invasiveness: radiotherapy (T1), decompression (T2), decompression + instrumentation (T3) and decompression + instrumentation + reconstruction (T4). Survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Costs were estimated from a healthcare perspective. Lifetime costs were defined as accumulated costs from treatment initiation until death. The Kaplan-Meier Sampling Average method was used to estimate these costs; 95% CIs were estimated using nonparametric bootstrapping. Mean age of the study population was 65.2 years (range: 19-95). During a mean follow-up period of 9.2 months (range: 0.1-94.5 months), post treatment survival ranged from 4.4 months (95% CI 2.5-7.5) in the T1 group to 8.7 months (95% CI 6.7-14.1) in the T4 group. Inpatient hospitalisation accounted for 65% and outpatient services for 31% of the healthcare costs followed by hospice placements 3% and primary care 1%. Lifetime healthcare costs accounted for €36,616 (95% CI 33,835-39,583) per T1 patients, €49,632 (95% CI 42,287-57,767) per T2 patient, €70997 (95% CI 62,244-82,354) per T3 patient and €87,814 (95% CI 76,638-101,528) per T4 patient. Overall, 45% of costs were utilised within the first month. T1 and T4 patients had almost identical distributions of costs: inpatient hospitalisation averaged 59% and 36% for outpatient services. Costs of T2 and T3 were very similarly distributed with an average of 71% for inpatient hospitalisation and 25% for outpatient services. The index treatment accounts for almost half of lifetime health care costs from treatment initiation until death. As expected, lifetime healthcare costs are positively association with invasiveness of treatment.BMC Cancer 05/2015; 15(1):354. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1357-z · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Skeletal-related events (SREs) are defined as a cluster of events including clinical diagnoses and treatment. Using claims data, the burden of SREs as a group has been reported among patients with cancer. We investigate the mortality impact of subcomponents of SREs, a topic that has received limited attention among older men. Materials and Methods We analyzed prostate cancer (PCa) and all-cause mortality among men diagnosed with metastatic PCa from 2000 to 2007 using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data linked with 1999–2009 Medicare data. We created three measures of pathological fracture (PF), spinal cord compression (SCC), and bone surgery (BS) that differed in the use of claims-based bone metastasis information. We reported covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using the full sample and a propensity score-matched sample (PSMS). Results Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria resulted in 7062 men in the full sample (1776 in the PSMS). PCa-specific (all-cause mortality) was 54% (80%) at a median follow-up of 609 days. SRE prevalence ranged from 9.7% to 17.1% across the measures. In a PCa mortality model, the HR associated with an SRE ranged from 1.07 (0.98–1.16) to 1.31 (1.18–1.45). The HRs for SCC and PF were statistically significant and positively associated with PCa-specific mortality. The results for BS depended on the measure. Results for SCC and BS, but not for PF, were preserved using a PSMS. Conclusions The relationship between SREs and mortality among older men with metastatic PCa was driven by SCC and depended on the definition used to measure SREs.Journal of Geriatric Oncology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jgo.2014.03.002 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with breast cancer and bone metastases often experience skeletal complications (skeletal-related events [SREs]: pathologic fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone or spinal cord compression). Prospective data on the health resource burden of SREs are needed for planning healthcare requirements and estimating the value of new treatments, but limited data are available. This prospective, observational study collected health resource utilization (HRU) data independently attributed to SREs by investigators. Eligible patients had bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, life expectancy ≥6 months, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2, and at least one SRE in the 97 days before enrollment. Data, collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrollment and prospectively for 18-21 months, included number and duration of inpatient stays, outpatient visits, emergency room visits and procedures. Altogether, 223 patients were enrolled from Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Of the 457 SREs, 118 (25.8%) were associated with inpatient stays. The mean duration of stay was 19.5 (standard deviation [SD] 19.2) days per SRE (based on 117 SREs). Surgery to bone and spinal cord compression were the SREs most likely to require inpatient stays (77.8% and 57.9% of SREs, respectively), while radiation to bone was the least likely (9.7%). Spinal cord compression required the longest inpatient stay per event (34.2 [SD 30.2] days) and radiation to bone the shortest (14.3 [SD 10.2] days). Overall, 342 SREs (74.8%) required an outpatient visit, with radiation to bone the most likely (85.7%), and surgery to bone the least likely (42.6%). Radiation to bone was also associated with the greatest number of outpatient visits per event (6.8 [SD 6.7] visits). All SREs were associated with substantial HRU therefore, preventing SREs in patients with breast cancer may reduce the burden imposed on healthcare systems.SpringerPlus 06/2014; 3:328. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-328