X-ray craniometric and X-RAY cephalometric determination of angular parameters in german shepherd dogs

Acta Veterinaria 01/2009; 59(2-3):255-265. DOI: 10.2298/AVB0903255K
Source: DOAJ


Analyses of the viscerocranial parameters in dogs has been avoided due to inconsistencies in defining the reference points for linear and angular measurements. In our study we classified the elements which refer to the balance of skeletal structures and teeth in relation to other osseous elements. By X-ray-photoimaging spatial relations within the osseous system of the head of German Shepherd dogs angular parameters (gonial angle Go, the angles Iv, SNA, SNB, ANB and NSBa) were constructed. Sagittal positions or inclinations of the upper and lower incisors were determined by angles C and D and their relationship was determined by the interincisal angle E. The position of the upper and lower eyeteeth in relation to the basic plane of the maxilla and mandible was determined by the numerical values of angles F and G. The opportunity to define the type of growth, and the changes between the face and the skull base, was provided by constructing the following angles of the polygon, as well as by the exact determination of their individual and total values: <SarGo, <NSAr, <ArGoIv, <GoIvMe.

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Available from: Dejan LJ. Marković,