Role of CFTR and ClC-5 in modulating vacuolar H+-ATPase activity in kidney proximal tubule.
ABSTRACT It has been widely accepted that chloride ions moving along chloride channels act to dissipate the electrical gradient established by the electrogenic transport of H(+) ions performed by H(+)-ATPase into subcellular vesicles. Largely known in intracellular compartments, this mechanism is also important at the plasma membrane of cells from various tissues, including kidney. The present work was performed to study the modulation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase by chloride channels, in particular, CFTR and ClC-5 in kidney proximal tubule.
Using in vivo stationary microperfusion, it was observed that ATPase-mediated HCO(3)(-) reabsorption was significantly reduced in the presence of the Cl(-) channels inhibitor NPPB. This effect was confirmed in vitro by measuring the cell pH recovery rates after a NH(4)Cl pulse in immortalized rat renal proximal tubule cells, IRPTC. In these cells, even after abolishing the membrane potential with valinomycin, ATPase activity was seen to be still dependent on Cl(-). siRNA-mediated CFTR channels and ClC-5 chloride-proton exchanger knockdown significantly reduced H(+)-ATPase activity and V-ATPase B2 subunit expression.
These results indicate a role of chloride in modulating plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity in proximal tubule and suggest that both CFTR and ClC-5 modulate ATPase activity.
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ABSTRACT: The proximal tubule uses a complex process of apical acid secretion and basolateral bicarbonate absorption to regulate both luminal acidification and fluid absorption. One of the primary regulators of apical acid secretion is the luminal sodium-hydrogen exchanger expressed along the apical membrane of the proximal tubule. Similarly, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is also located along the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule. Here we investigated the role of CaSR in proton secretion and fluid reabsorption in proximal tubules by modulating luminal calcium concentration, using both in vivo micropuncture in rats and in vitro perfused mouse proximal tubules. Using CaSR knockout mice and a calcimimetic agent, we found that increased proton secretion and fluid reabsorption were CaSR dependent. Activating CaSR by either raising the luminal calcium ion concentration or by the calcimimetic caused a concomitant increase in sodium-dependent proton extrusion and fluid reabsorption, whereas in proximal tubules isolated from CaSR knockout mice varying calcium ion concentration had no effect. Application of a calcimimetic in lower concentrations of calcium ion stimulated these processes in vitro and in vivo. Thus, in both rats and mice, increased luminal calcium concentration leads to enhanced fluid reabsorption in the proximal tubule, a process related to activation of CaSR.Kidney International advance online publication, 24 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.137.Kidney International 04/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cumulative epidemiological evidences indicate that the presence of microalbuminuria predicts a higher frequency of cardiovascular events, peripheral disease and mortality in essential hypertension. Microalbuminuria may arise from increased glomerular permeability and/or reduced proximal tubular reabsorption of albumin by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This study aimed to evaluate the temporal pattern of urinary protein excretion and to test the hypothesis that progression of microalbuminuria is associated with decreased protein expression of critical components of the endocytic apparatus in the renal proximal tubule of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We found that urinary albumin excretion increased progressively with blood pressure in SHR from 6 to 21 weeks of age. In addition, SDS-PAGE analysis of urinary proteins showed that microalbuminuric SHR virtually excreted proteins of the size of albumin or smaller (< 70kDa), typical of tubular proteinuria. Moreover, the protein abundance of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin as well as of the chloride channel ClC-5 progressively decreased in the renal cortex of SHR from 6 to 21 weeks of age. Expression of the vacuolar-H+-ATPase B2 subunit was also reduced in the renal cortex of 21-wk-old compared to both 6 and 14-wk-old SHR. Collectively, our study suggests that enhanced urinary protein excretion, especially of albumin, may be due, at least in part, to lower expression of key components of the apical endocytic apparatus in the renal proximal tubule. Finally, one may speculate that dysfunction of the apical endocytic pathway in the renal proximal tubule may contribute to the development of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension.AJP Renal Physiology 05/2013; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial Cl(-) secretion plays important roles in water secretion preventing bacterial/viral infection and regulation of body fluid. We previously suggested that quercetin would be a useful compound for maintaining epithelial Cl(-) secretion at a moderate level irrespective of cAMP-induced stimulation. However, we need a compound that stimulates epithelial Cl(-) secretion even under cAMP-stimulated conditions, since in some cases epithelial Cl(-) secretion is not large enough even under cAMP-stimulated conditions. We demonstrated that quercetin and myricetin, flavonoids, stimulated epithelial Cl(-) secretion under basal conditions in epithelial A6 cells. We used forskolin, which activates adenylyl cyclase increasing cytosolic cAMP concentrations, to study the effects of quercetin and myricetin on cAMP-stimulated epithelial Cl(-) secretion. In the presence of forskolin, quercetin diminished epithelial Cl(-) secretion to a level similar to that with quercetin alone without forskolin. Conversely, myricetin further stimulated epithelial Cl(-) secretion even under forskolin-stimulated conditions. This suggests that the action of myricetin is via a cAMP-independent pathway. Therefore, myricetin may be a potentially useful compound to increase epithelial Cl(-) secretion under cAMP-stimulated conditions. In conclusion, myricetin would be a useful compound for prevention from bacterial/viral infection even under conditions that the amount of water secretion driven by cAMP-stimulated epithelial Cl(-) secretion is insufficient.BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014:902735. · 2.88 Impact Factor