Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 trafficking and angiogenesis by Golgi localized t-SNARE syntaxin 6

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa, 51 Newton Rd., Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 11/2010; 117(4):1425-35. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-06-291690
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) plays a key role in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Plasma membrane (PM) levels of VEGFR2 are regulated by endocytosis and secretory transport through the Golgi apparatus. To date, the mechanism whereby the VEGFR2 traffics through the Golgi apparatus remains incompletely characterized. We show in human endothelial cells that binding of VEGF to the cell surface localized VEGFR2 stimulates exit of intracellular VEGFR2 from the Golgi apparatus. Brefeldin A treatment reduced the level of surface VEGFR2, confirming that VEGFR2 traffics through the Golgi apparatus en route to the PM. Mechanistically, we show that inhibition of syntaxin 6, a Golgi-localized target membrane-soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) protein, interferes with VEGFR2 trafficking to the PM and facilitates lysosomal degradation of the VEGFR2. In cell culture, inhibition of syntaxin 6 also reduced VEGF-induced cell proliferation, cell migration, and vascular tube formation. Furthermore, in a mouse ear model of angiogenesis, an inhibitory form of syntaxin 6 reduced VEGF-induced neovascularization and permeability. Our data demonstrate the importance of syntaxin 6 in the maintenance of cellular VEGFR2 levels, and suggest that the inhibitory form of syntaxin 6 has good potential as an antiangiogenic agent.

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    • "Microscopy studies were performed as described previously [21]. Briefly, cells grown on acid-washed glass coverslips were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in Dulbecco’s modified phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 25 min at room temperature (RT), after which the reaction was quenched by adding 100 mM glycine in PBS and incubating for a further 15 min at RT. "
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    ABSTRACT: The formation and maintenance of cell-cell junctions, both under physiological and pathological conditions, requires the targeting and trafficking of junctional proteins. Proteins of the syntaxin (Stx)-family localize to a variety of subcellular membranes and contribute to intracellular transport of cargo by regulating vesicle fusion events at these sites. Unlike plasma membrane localized Stxs, the roles of endosome- and Golgi-localized stx proteins in epithelial morphogenesis are less understood. Here we show that Stx16- an endosome- and Golgi-localized target-membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) that plays a role in membrane trafficking between these compartments - is essential for lumen development. In cultured Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, Stx16 was selectively upregulated as sparsely plated cells attained confluency. Stx16-depleted confluent monolayers consistently showed lower transepithelial resistance than control monolayers, and failed to maintain endogenous and ectopically expressed E-cadherin at the adherens junctions due to decreased recycling. We further found that whereas cysts formed by MDCK cells cultured in Matrigel have a single hollow lumen, those formed by stx16-depleted counterparts had multiple lumens, due to abnormal orientiation of the mitotic spindle. Finally, a similar role for stx16 function in vivo is indicated by our analysis of pronephric-duct development in zebrafish expressing the claudinB:lynGFP transgene; lack of stx16 function in this structure (in stx16-morphant embryos) led to the development of enlarged, torturous pronephric ducts with more than one lumen. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo studies establish a role for Stx16 in maintaining the integrity of cell-cell junctions, and thereby in morphogenesis of the kidney epithelial lumen.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61857. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061857 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "EC-sFlt1 cells were nucleofected with mutant forms of Arf1, Arf6, and Rab11 plasmids and were then used for cell proliferation measurement as described before [66]. After 24 hrs, cells (2×104; untreated or nucleofected ones) were seeded in 96-well plates. "
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    ABSTRACT: The soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1/sFlt1) is generated by alternative splicing of the FLT1 gene. Secretion of sFlt1 from endothelial cells plays an important role in blood vessel sprouting and morphogenesis. However, excess sFlt1 secretion is associated with diseases such as preeclampsia and chronic kidney disease. To date, the secretory transport process involved in the secretion of sFlt1 is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the itinerary of sFlt1 trafficking along the secretory pathway. To understand the timecourse of sFlt1 secretion, endothelial cells stably expressing sFlt1 were metabolically radiolabeled with [(35)S]-methionine and cysteine. Our results indicate that after initial synthesis the levels of secreted [(35)S]-sFlt1 in the extracellular medium peaks at 8 hours. Treatment with brefeldin A (BFA), a drug which blocks trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, inhibited extracellular release of sFlt1 suggesting that ER to Golgi and intra-Golgi trafficking of sFlt1 are essential for its secretion. Furthermore, we show that ectopic expression of dominant-negative mutant forms of Arf1, Arf6, and Rab11 as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of these GTPases block secretion of sFlt1 during normoxic and hypoxic conditions suggesting role for these small GTPases. This work is the first to report role of regulatory proteins involved in sFlt1 trafficking along the secretory pathway and may provide insights and new molecular targets for the modulation of sFlt-1 release during physiological and pathological conditions.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(9):e44572. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044572 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Endothelial cells respond to VEGF to produce new blood vessels. This angiogenic process makes a critical contribution during embryogenesis and in the response to ischemia in adult tissues [12], [13], [14], [15]. VEGF resistance has been recently observed in diabetic angiogenesis which is attribute to monocytic VEGFR1 down-regulation [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes impairs physiological angiogenesis by molecular mechanisms that are not fully understood. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a metabolite of glycolysis, is increased in patients with diabetes. This study defined the role of MGO in angiogenesis impairment and tested the mechanism in diabetic animals. Endothelial cells and mouse aortas were subjected to Western blot analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) protein levels and angiogenesis evaluation by endothelial cell tube formation/migration and aortic ring assays. Incubation with MGO reduced VEGFR2 protein, but not mRNA, levels in a time and dose dependent manner. Genetic knockdown of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) attenuated the reduction of VEGFR2. Overexpression of Glyoxalase 1, the enzyme that detoxifies MGO, reduced the MGO-protein adducts and prevented VEGFR2 reduction. The VEGFR2 reduction was associated with impaired angiogenesis. Suppression of autophagy either by inhibitors or siRNA, but not of the proteasome and caspase, normalized both the VEGFR2 protein levels and angiogenesis. Conversely, induction of autophagy either by rapamycin or overexpression of LC3 and Beclin-1 reduced VEGFR2 and angiogenesis. MGO increased endothelial LC3B and Beclin-1, markers of autophagy, which were accompanied by an increase of both autophagic flux (LC3 punctae) and co-immunoprecipitation of VEGFR2 with LC3. Pharmacological or genetic suppression of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generation not only blocked the autophagy but also reversed the reduction of VEGFR2 and angiogenesis. Like MGO-treated aortas from normglycemic C57BL/6J mice, aortas from diabetic db/db and Akita mice presented reductions of angiogenesis or VEGFR2. Administration of either autophagy inhibitor ex vivo or superoxide scavenger in vivo abolished the reductions. Taken together, MGO reduces endothelial angiogenesis through RAGE-mediated, ONOO(-)dependent and autophagy-induced VEGFR2 degradation, which may represent a new mechanism for diabetic angiogenesis impairment.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e46720. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046720 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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