Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 trafficking and angiogenesis by Golgi localized t-SNARE syntaxin 6
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) plays a key role in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Plasma membrane (PM) levels of VEGFR2 are regulated by endocytosis and secretory transport through the Golgi apparatus. To date, the mechanism whereby the VEGFR2 traffics through the Golgi apparatus remains incompletely characterized. We show in human endothelial cells that binding of VEGF to the cell surface localized VEGFR2 stimulates exit of intracellular VEGFR2 from the Golgi apparatus. Brefeldin A treatment reduced the level of surface VEGFR2, confirming that VEGFR2 traffics through the Golgi apparatus en route to the PM. Mechanistically, we show that inhibition of syntaxin 6, a Golgi-localized target membrane-soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) protein, interferes with VEGFR2 trafficking to the PM and facilitates lysosomal degradation of the VEGFR2. In cell culture, inhibition of syntaxin 6 also reduced VEGF-induced cell proliferation, cell migration, and vascular tube formation. Furthermore, in a mouse ear model of angiogenesis, an inhibitory form of syntaxin 6 reduced VEGF-induced neovascularization and permeability. Our data demonstrate the importance of syntaxin 6 in the maintenance of cellular VEGFR2 levels, and suggest that the inhibitory form of syntaxin 6 has good potential as an antiangiogenic agent.
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ABSTRACT: Portal fibroblasts (PF) are one of the two primary cell types contributing to the myofibroblast population of the liver and are thus essential to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a known profibrogenic chemokine that may be of particular importance in biliary fibrosis. We examined the effect of MCP-1 on release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by rat PF. We found that MCP-1 blocks PF release of MMP-9 in a posttranslational fashion. We employed an optical and electron microscopic approach to determine the mechanism of this downregulation. Our data demonstrated that, in the presence of MCP-1, MMP-9-containing vesicles were shunted to a lysosome-like compartment. This is the first report of a secretory protein to be so regulated in fibrogenic cells.11/2014; 2(11). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12153
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ABSTRACT: Although trafficking of newly synthetized VEGFR2 to the plasma membrane is a key determinant of angiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms of Golgi to plasma membrane trafficking are unknown. Here we identified the key role of the kinesin family plus-end molecular motor KIF13B in delivering VEGFR2 cargo from Golgi to the endothelial cell surface. KIF13B was shown to interact directly with VEGFR2 on microtubules. We also observed that over-expression of the KIF13B binding domain interacting with VEGFR2 inhibited VEGF-induced capillary tube formation. KIF13B depletion prevented VEGF-mediated endothelial migration, capillary tube formation, and neo-vascularization in mice. Impairment in trafficking induced by knockdown of KIF13B shunted VEGFR2 towards the lysosomal degradation pathway. Thus, KIF13B is an essential molecular motor required for the trafficking of VEGFR2 from the Golgi and its delivery to the endothelial cell surface mediates angiogenesis.Journal of Cell Science 08/2014; DOI:10.1242/jcs.156109 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The past5 years have witnessed a significant expansion in our understanding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. In particular, the process of canonical activation of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases by homodimeric VEGF molecules has now been broadened by the realization that heterodimeric ligands and receptors are also active participants in the signaling process. Although heterodimer receptors were described 2 decades ago, their impact, along with the effect of additional cell surface partners and novel autocrine VEGF signaling pathways, are only now starting to be clarified. Furthermore, ligand-independent signaling (noncanonical) has been identified which occurs through galectin and gremlin binding and on rise of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Activation of the VEGF receptors in the absence of ligand holds immediate implications for therapeutic approaches that exclusively target VEGF. The present review provides a concise summary of the recent developments in both canonical and noncanonical VEGF signaling and places these findings in perspective to their potential clinical and biological ramifications.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303215 · 5.53 Impact Factor