Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 trafficking and angiogenesis by Golgi localized t-SNARE syntaxin 6.
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) plays a key role in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Plasma membrane (PM) levels of VEGFR2 are regulated by endocytosis and secretory transport through the Golgi apparatus. To date, the mechanism whereby the VEGFR2 traffics through the Golgi apparatus remains incompletely characterized. We show in human endothelial cells that binding of VEGF to the cell surface localized VEGFR2 stimulates exit of intracellular VEGFR2 from the Golgi apparatus. Brefeldin A treatment reduced the level of surface VEGFR2, confirming that VEGFR2 traffics through the Golgi apparatus en route to the PM. Mechanistically, we show that inhibition of syntaxin 6, a Golgi-localized target membrane-soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) protein, interferes with VEGFR2 trafficking to the PM and facilitates lysosomal degradation of the VEGFR2. In cell culture, inhibition of syntaxin 6 also reduced VEGF-induced cell proliferation, cell migration, and vascular tube formation. Furthermore, in a mouse ear model of angiogenesis, an inhibitory form of syntaxin 6 reduced VEGF-induced neovascularization and permeability. Our data demonstrate the importance of syntaxin 6 in the maintenance of cellular VEGFR2 levels, and suggest that the inhibitory form of syntaxin 6 has good potential as an antiangiogenic agent.
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ABSTRACT: The neuropilin (Nrp)1 receptor is essential for both nervous and vascular system development. Nrp1 is unusually versatile, because it transmits both chemoattractive and repulsive signals in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and class 3 semaphorins, respectively. Both Nrp1 and VEGF receptor 2 undergo ligand-dependent endocytosis. We sought to establish the endocytic pathway of Nrp1 and to determine whether uptake is required for its signaling. Whereas Nrp1 underwent clathrin-dependent endocytosis in response to VEGFA(165) treatment, semaphorin 3C (sema3C) induced lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. The myosin VI PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, Disk large, Zona occludens-1) adaptor protein synectin was essential for Nrp1 trafficking. Sema3C failed to inhibit migration of synectin(-/-) endothelial cells, mirroring the lower migratory response of these cells to VEGFA(165). These results show that the endocytic pathway of Nrp1 is determined by its ligand and that the trafficking of Nrp1 is essential for its signaling.Circulation Research 09/2008; 103(6):e71-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that glycosphingolipids are internalized from the plasma membrane of human skin fibroblasts by a clathrin-independent, caveolar-related mechanism and are subsequently transported to the Golgi apparatus by a process that is dependent on microtubules, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Rab7, and Rab9. Here we characterized the early steps of intracellular transport of a fluorescent glycosphingolipid analog, BODIPY-lactosylceramide (LacCer), and compared this to fluorescent transferrin (Tfn), a well established marker for the clathrin pathway. Although these two markers were initially internalized into separate vesicles by distinct mechanisms, they became co-localized in early endosomes within 5 min. These results demonstrate that glycosphingolipid-containing vesicles derived from caveolar-related endocytosis fuse with the classical endosomal system. However, in contrast to Tfn, internalization and trafficking of LacCer was independent of Rab5a, a key regulator of transport to early endosomes. By taking advantage of the monomer/excimer properties of the fluorescent lipid analog, we were also able to visualize LacCer segregation into distinct microdomains of high (red emission) and low (green emission) concentrations in the early endosomes of living cells. Interestingly, the high concentration "red" microdomains co-localized with fluorescent Tfn upon exit from early endosomes and passed through Rab11-positive "recycling endosomes" prior to being transported back to the plasma membrane. These results together with our previous studies suggest that glycosphingolipids internalized by caveolar endocytosis are rapidly delivered to early endosomes where they are fractionated into two major pools, one that is transported via late endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and the other that is returned to the plasma membrane via the recycling compartment.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2003; 278(9):7564-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Confluent endothelial cells respond poorly to the proliferative signals of VEGF. Comparing isogenic endothelial cells differing for vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) expression only, we found that the presence of this protein attenuates VEGF-induced VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 phosphorylation in tyrosine, p44/p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation, and cell proliferation. VE-cadherin truncated in beta-catenin but not p120 binding domain is unable to associate with VEGFR-2 and to induce its inactivation. beta-Catenin-null endothelial cells are not contact inhibited by VE-cadherin and are still responsive to VEGF, indicating that this protein is required to restrain growth factor signaling. A dominant-negative mutant of high cell density-enhanced PTP 1 (DEP-1)//CD148 as well as reduction of its expression by RNA interference partially restore VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and MAP kinase activation. Overall the data indicate that VE-cadherin-beta-catenin complex participates in contact inhibition of VEGF signaling. Upon stimulation with VEGF, VEGFR-2 associates with the complex and concentrates at cell-cell contacts, where it may be inactivated by junctional phosphatases such as DEP-1. In sparse cells or in VE-cadherin-null cells, this phenomenon cannot occur and the receptor is fully activated by the growth factor.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2003; 161(4):793-804. · 10.82 Impact Factor