Efficacy of melatonin, mercaptoethylguanidine and 1400W in doxorubicin- and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity.
ABSTRACT Doxorubicin (DOX) and Trastuzumab (TRAST) are effective agents for the treatment of many neoplastic diseases. Cardiotoxicity is a major side effect of these drugs and limit their use. In this study, the possible protective effects of melatonin (MEL), mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG), or N-(3-(aminomethyl) benzyl) acetamidine (1400W) against the cardiotoxicity of DOX and TRAST were tested. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an injection of DOX (20 mg/kg) alone or in combination with TRAST (10 mg/kg) to induce cardiotoxicity; daily treatments with MEL (10 mg/kg × 2), MEG (10 mg/kg × 2), or 1400W (10 mg/kg × 2) were begun 36 hr before and continued for 72 hr after DOX and TRAST administration. Oxidant/antioxidant indices of the cardiac tissue, namely, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as serum levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK-MB) were measured. Additionally, the injury scores were evaluated histopathologically. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher, while SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly reduced in rats with DOX- or DOX+TRAST-induced cardiotoxicity compared to normal values. All three treatment agents significantly reversed oxidative stress markers. Serum CK-MB levels were significantly increased after treatment with DOX and DOX+TRAST; these changes were also reversed by each of the treatments and resulted in near normal levels. Both the DOX- and DOX+TRAST-treated rats presented similar histopathologic injuries; in the animals treated with the protective agents, histologic protection of the cardiac tissue was apparent. These results suggested that MEL, MEG, as well as 1400 W are effective in preventing DOX- or DOX+TRAST-induced cardiotoxicity.