Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia.
One hundred and twenty-three subjects with hyperlipidaemia and 68 systemically healthy controls (C) were included in the study. Hyperlipidaemic groups were divided into two groups as suggested diet (HD) and prescribed statin (HS). Both groups were divided into three subgroups as healthy (h), gingivitis (g) and periodontitis (p). The clinical periodontal parameters, fasting venous blood and GCF samples were obtained, and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels were evaluated.
The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) was associated with gingival index and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP%) in both hyperlipidaemic groups. In HS group, GCF and serum IL-6 were positively correlated with BOP% and TC/HDL. GCF TNF-α was positively associated with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, whereas serum TNF-α was associated with BOP% in the HD group. Serum and GCF TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly associated with TC/HDL in the HD group.
Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia.
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition, which constitutes a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder is found prevalent in the industrialized societies of the world in epidemic proportions. Periodontitis is an oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth, resulting in edentulism if untreated. Periodontitis has been attributed to produce a low grade systemic inflammatory condition. The link of periodontitis to various systemic disorders has led to the evolution of a new branch termed as "periodontal medicine." Studies reviewed in the present paper have indicated a positive link between the MS and periodontitis and it is suggested that subjects displaying several components of MS should be submitted to periodontal examination. Present studies have displayed coherent relation between the two entities. This review will address the vicious association between MS and periodontitis, depicting the commonality of pathophysiological pathway between the two entities. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis addressing the concerned subject were screened. Whether the systematic periodontal therapy in individuals exhibiting MS has the potential to reduce the incidence of various adverse systemic complications remains a logical proposition. Further, longitudinal and controlled trials with a large population would be imperative to depict the robustness in the association between MS and periodontal disease in human subjects.Dental research journal 01/2014; 11(1):1-10.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (AT) on the alveolar bone loss in rats with ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (EP). Female Wistar adult rats were assigned either a control (Co) or an AT diet fed for 9 weeks. The AT diet was high in saturated fat, cholesterol and energy. At week 2, animals were subjected to a unilateral ligature (L) around the left first molar (Co+L and AT+L). The contra lateral first right molar (not ligated) of both groups (Co and AT) were used as untreated controls. At week 9, blood was drawn, rats were euthanized, hemi-mandibles removed and stained digital photographs (buccal and lingual surfaces) and radiographs were obtained for quantification of alveolar bone loss (ABL). The ABL was determined by distance and area methods (mm(2)) and X-rays were used for periodontal bone support (PBS), (%). Rats in the AT group exhibited a 17% increase in energy intake, gained significant body weight and showed the highest serum total-cholesterol (T-C) and non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p<0.001). The amount of lost periodontal bone was the greatest in AT+L rats. AT feedings significantly increased the buccal area and distance of bone loss when compared with the unligated-teeth (p<0.001). The rats in the AT+L group also achieved the lowest percentage of PBS (p<0.001). The AT and Co+L rats showed similar PBS. This method more clearly elucidated the effect of the cholesterol-rich AT, with and without the influence of molar ligature, compared to the morphometric analysis. The alveolar bone loss of EP was magnified by ingestion of an atherogenic diet high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol.Archives of oral biology 04/2014; 59(7):679-686. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective In this study, the effect of hyperlipidemia on innate immune responses to periodontal bacterial infections was investigated. Methods Sixty male New Zealand white rabbits were equally assigned to normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. Every six rabbits with ND or HFD were orally inoculated with live Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis three times a week for 8 weeks. Also every six rabbits with ND or HFD rabbits were injected intravenously with A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis LPS. Periodontal disease severity was quantified by macroscopic and radiographical evaluation. Serum cytokines were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, peripheral mononuclear cells were collected and stimulated with LPS. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the changes in gene expression of macrophages. Results In the early stages of infection, HFD rabbits were exposed to oral infection and systemic infection developed a weak inflammatory response to the reduced cytokine expression compared with ND rabbits. However, HFD rabbits exhibited higher inflammatory cytokine expression during long-term infections. Moreover, the pronounced changes in inflammatory cytokine expression elicited a significant increase in bone loss in HFD rabbits with oral infection. Peripheral macrophages harvested from HFD rabbits and exposed to LPS exhibited reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with those from ND rabbits in vitro. Conclusion These data indicated that hyperlipidemia interfered with immune responses differently. The mechanism is possibly associated with immune paralysis in the acute phase and accumulation of inflammatory mediators in the chronic period.Archives of Oral Biology. 01/2014;