Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia.
One hundred and twenty-three subjects with hyperlipidaemia and 68 systemically healthy controls (C) were included in the study. Hyperlipidaemic groups were divided into two groups as suggested diet (HD) and prescribed statin (HS). Both groups were divided into three subgroups as healthy (h), gingivitis (g) and periodontitis (p). The clinical periodontal parameters, fasting venous blood and GCF samples were obtained, and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels were evaluated.
The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) was associated with gingival index and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP%) in both hyperlipidaemic groups. In HS group, GCF and serum IL-6 were positively correlated with BOP% and TC/HDL. GCF TNF-α was positively associated with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, whereas serum TNF-α was associated with BOP% in the HD group. Serum and GCF TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly associated with TC/HDL in the HD group.
Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia.
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- "Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines may orchestrate a vital role in the association between periodontitis and dyslipidemia. It is proposed that periodontitis is not only associated with the severity of the deterioration of lipid metabolism, but also that the aggravation of hyperlipidemic state is linked with periodontal inflammation by the up-regulation of serum and gingival crevicular fluid pro-inflammatory cytokines. "
ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition, which constitutes a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder is found prevalent in the industrialized societies of the world in epidemic proportions. Periodontitis is an oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth, resulting in edentulism if untreated. Periodontitis has been attributed to produce a low grade systemic inflammatory condition. The link of periodontitis to various systemic disorders has led to the evolution of a new branch termed as "periodontal medicine." Studies reviewed in the present paper have indicated a positive link between the MS and periodontitis and it is suggested that subjects displaying several components of MS should be submitted to periodontal examination. Present studies have displayed coherent relation between the two entities. This review will address the vicious association between MS and periodontitis, depicting the commonality of pathophysiological pathway between the two entities. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis addressing the concerned subject were screened. Whether the systematic periodontal therapy in individuals exhibiting MS has the potential to reduce the incidence of various adverse systemic complications remains a logical proposition. Further, longitudinal and controlled trials with a large population would be imperative to depict the robustness in the association between MS and periodontal disease in human subjects.Dental research journal 03/2014; 11(1):1-10.
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- "A complex interaction between these bacteria and the host immune system may induce inflammatory conditions that result in the loss of the collagenous structures that support the teeth (2,3). A number of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in periodontal diseases (4,5). These mediators may affect the activities of leukocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts and promote the tissue remodeling process systemically and locally (6–8). "
ABSTRACT: In periodontal diseases, inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), may promote the degeneration of inflamed periodontal tissues. In previous studies, levels of these three cytokines were demonstrated to be elevated in inflammatory gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid. The aim of the present study was to quantify IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in the human gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis and to assess the correlation of these three cytokines with each other. In this study, human gingival tissues from 19 patients with periodontitis (male, n=14; female, n=5) were collected. The tissues were homogenized, centrifuged and the protein in the supernatant was quantified. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in the measurement of the IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels, and the mean levels were observed to be 8.41±0.25, 34.01±1.09 and 20.70±0.31 pg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of IL-8 were higher than those of the other two cytokines. In each sample, the level of TNF-α expression was consistently high, with little difference between the results, which contrasted with the fluctuations in IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The expression of the two ILs (IL-6 and IL-8) showed a positive correlation (r=0.932, P=0.01), whereas TNF-α levels were not correlated with IL-6 or IL-8 levels. These results suggest that IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α may be relevant in the pathophysiology of periodontitis, and the measurement of these cytokines may be beneficial in the identification of patients with periodontitis.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2013; 6(3):847-851. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1222 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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- "For instance, it has been reported that patients with dyslipidemia showed a significantly higher number of sextants with increased periodontal pockets than the control group . It is also known that the ratio of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to total cholesterol is associated with gingival index and percentage of bleeding on probing in patients with dyslipidemia . Furthermore, it is shown that plasma level of lipid peroxidation was associated with the severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes patients . "
ABSTRACT: Background Dyslipidemia increases circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and this may induce alveolar bone loss through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dyslipidemia on osteoclast differentiation associated with TLR2 and TLR4 in periodontal tissues using a rat dyslipidemia (apolipoprotein E deficient) model. Methods Levels of plasma OxLDL, and the cholesterol and phospholipid profiles in plasma lipoproteins were compared between apolipoprotein E-deficient rats (16-week-old males) and wild-type (control) rats. In the periodontal tissue, we evaluated the changes in TLR2, TLR4, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression. Results Apolipoprotein E-deficient rats showed higher plasma levels of OxLDL than control rats (p<0.05), with higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) and lower plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05). Their periodontal tissue also exhibited a higher ratio of RANKL-positive cells and a higher number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts than control rats (p<0.05). Furthermore, periodontal gene expression of TLR2, TLR4 and RANKL was higher in apolipoprotein E-deficient rats than in control rats (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings underscore the important role for TLR2 and TLR4 in mediating the osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone response to dyslipidemia.Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2013; 12(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-1 · 2.22 Impact Factor