Surgical modifications of the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Center for Sleep Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 5.06). 10/2010; 33(10):1396-407.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A substantial portion of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) seek alternatives to positive airway pressure (PAP), the usual first-line treatment for the disorder. One option is upper airway surgery. As an adjunct to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Standards of Practice paper, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature reporting outcomes following various upper airway surgeries for the treatment of OSA in adults, including maxillomandibular advancement (MMA), pharyngeal surgeries such as uvulopharyngopalatoplasty (UPPP), laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), as well as multi-level and multi-phased procedures. We found that the published literature is comprised primarily of case series, with few controlled trials and varying approaches to pre-operative evaluation and post-operative follow-up. We include surgical morbidity and adverse events where reported but these were not systematically analyzed. Utilizing the ratio of means method, we used the change in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as the primary measure of efficacy. Substantial and consistent reductions in the AHI were observed following MMA; adverse events were uncommonly reported. Outcomes following pharyngeal surgeries were less consistent; adverse events were reported more commonly. Papers describing positive outcomes associated with newer pharyngeal techniques and multi-level procedures performed in small samples of patients appear promising. Further research is needed to better clarify patient selection, as well as efficacy and safety of upper airway surgery in those with OSA.

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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea occurs as a result of increased collapsibility of the upper airway. Overnight fluid displacement from the legs to the neck causes pharyngeal narrowing and increased apnea severity. Sodium intake is associated with apnea severity. We hypothesized that interventions that decrease bodily fluid content might reduce the severity of sleep apnea. This is a randomized clinical trial including men with an apnea-hypopnea index greater than 30 events/hour, previously diagnosed by full-night in-laboratory polysomnography. A total of 54 men will be included and randomly assigned to three groups: Diuretic (n = 18), sodium-restricted diet (n = 18), and control (n = 18). The intervention will last one week. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be performed. The diuretic group will receive combined spironolactone 100 mg plus furosemide 20 mg daily, taken in the morning. The diet group will receive a regimen with a maximum intake of 3 g of sodium per day. The control group will receive a placebo pill and will maintain all eating habits while keeping a recall diary of their dietary behavior. The primary outcome measure will be change in apnea-hypopnea index. The secondary outcome measures will be variations of: anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance variables, office blood pressure, respiratory variables from in-home level III polysomnography, excessive daytime sleepiness, glycolipid profile, C-reactive protein, 24 h urinary variables, and adverse events. Despite the high efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure to reverse upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea, partial adherence to this form of treatment reduces its efficiency. Thus, additional forms of treating apnea need to be investigated. If the results of this proof-of-concept trial show that decreases in bodily fluid content, either by diuretic or dietary intervention, reduces the severity of sleep apnea, further investigation will be necessary before these results can be translated and adopted as an adjunct apnea therapy. NCT01945801.
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes when left untreated. There is significant heterogeneity in the evaluation and management of OSA resulting in variation in cost and outcomes. Thus, the goal for developing these measures was to have a way to evaluate the outcomes and reliability of the processes involved with the standard care approaches used in the diagnosis and management of OSA. The OSA quality care metrics presented here focus on both outcomes and processes. The AASM commissioned the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup to develop quality care metrics aimed at optimizing care for patients with OSA. These quality care metrics developed by the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup are an extension of the original Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approved Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) measures group for OSA. The measures are based on the available scientific evidence, focus on public safety, and strive to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes for individual OSA patients. The three outcome measures that were selected were as follows: (1) improve disease detection and categorization; (2) improve quality of life; and (3) reduce cardiovascular risk. After determining these relevant outcome measures, a total of ten process measures were chosen that could be applied and assessed for the purpose of accomplishing the outcomes measures. The measures described in this document may be reported through the Patient Quality Reporting System (PQRS) in addition to, or as a replacement for, the current OSA measures group. The overall objective for the development of these measures is that implementation of these quality metrics will result in improved patient outcomes, reduce the public health burden of OSA, and provide a measurable standard for evaluating and managing OSA. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
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