Loss of interstitial collagen causes structural and functional alterations of cardiomyocyte subsarcolemmal mitochondria in acute volume overload.

UAB Center for Heart Failure Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-2180, USA.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 11/2010; 50(1):147-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.10.034
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Volume overload (VO) caused by aortocaval fistula (ACF) is associated with oxidative/inflammatory stress. The resulting inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, and collagen degradation is thought to play a pivotal role in left ventricular (LV) dilatation and failure. Since mitochondria are also targets for inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that there would be bioenergetic dysfunction with acute VO. In Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 24 hrs of ACF, there was a two-fold increase in LV pressure-volume area in vivo, consistent with increased LV myocardial oxygen usage and increased bioenergetic demand in cardiomyocytes. Isolated cardiomyocytes from ACF LVs demonstrated increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide formation and increased MMP activity. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) showed a 40% decrease in state 3 respiration and proteomic analysis of SSM demonstrated decreased levels of complexes I-V in ACF. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed disruption of the subsarcolemmal location of the SSM network in ACF. To test for a potential link between SSM dysfunction and loss of interstitial collagen, rats were treated with the MMP-inhibitor PD166793 prior to ACF. MMP-inhibitor preserved interstitial collagen, integrin-α5 and the SSM structural arrangement. In addition, the decrease in state 3 mitochondrial respiration with ACF was prevented by PD166793. These studies established an important interaction between degradation of interstitial collagen in acute VO and the disruption of SSM structure and function which could contribute to progression to heart failure.

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac tissue contains discrete pools of mitochondria that are characterized by their subcellular spatial arrangement. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) exist below the cell membrane, interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) reside in rows between the myofibrils, and perinuclear mitochondria are situated at the nuclear poles. Microstructural imaging of heart tissue coupled with the development of differential isolation techniques designed to sequentially separate spatially-distinct mitochondrial subpopulations have revealed differences in morphological features including shape, absolute size and internal cristae arrangement. These findings have been complemented by functional studies indicating differences in biochemical parameters and potentially, functional roles for the ATP generated, based upon subcellular location. Consequently, mitochondrial subpopulations appear to be influenced differently during cardiac pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion, heart failure, aging, exercise and diabetes mellitus. These influences may be the result of specific structural and functional disparities between mitochondrial subpopulations such that the stress elicited by a given cardiac insult differentially impacts subcellular locales and the mitochondria contained within. The goal of this review is to highlight some of the inherent structural and functional differences that exist between spatially-distinct cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations, as well as provide an overview of the differential impact of various cardiac pathologies on spatially-distinct mitochondrial subpopulations. As an outcome, we will instill a basis for incorporating subcellular spatial location when evaluating the impact of cardiac pathologies on the mitochondrion. Incorporation of subcellular spatial location may offer the greatest potential for delineating the influence of cardiac pathology on this critical organelle.
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