Drug interaction between St John's wort and zolpidem in healthy subjects.
ABSTRACT St John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the most commonly used herbal antidepressants for treatment of mild to moderate depression. SJW enhances CYP3A4 activity and alters the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrates. This study investigated the effect of SJW on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in healthy subjects.
A controlled, open-label, non-randomized, fixed-dose schedule design was used. Fourteen healthy male subjects received a single 10 mg oral dose of zolpidem followed by SJW administration (300 mg orally, three times a day) for 14 days; the last dose of SJW was coadministered with a single dose of zolpidem. Blood samples were obtained over a 24-h period after zolpidem administration. Pharmacokinetic data for zolpidem alone and in combination with SJW were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: After repeated administration of SJW, the mean values of AUC and C(max) for zolpidem significantly decreased (380.3 ± 181.4 vs. 265.4 ± 134.2 ng h/mL, P = 0.001; 83.1 ± 30.1 vs. 55.1 ± 24.8 ng/mL, P = 0.000 respectively) and the mean value of CL/F for zolpidem significantly increased (38.4 ± 31.5 vs. 56.9 ± 57.2 mL/min, P = 0.040). However, in three subjects, the AUC showed a small increase after SJW treatment.
The effect of SJW on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem has not previously been reported. Repeated administration of SJW decreases the plasma concentration of zolpidem, probably by enhancing CYP3A4 activity. Given the wide inter-subject variability observed, for personalized medicine, advice on the use of the combination should be individualized, based on the circumstances of the patient.
SourceAvailable from: Emilio Russo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypericum perforatum (HP) belongs to the Hypericaceae family and is one of the oldest used and most extensively investigated medicinal herbs. The medicinal form comprises the leaves and flowering tops of which the primary ingredients of interest are naphthodianthrones, xanthones, flavonoids, phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin), and hypericin. Although several constituents elicit pharmacological effects that are consistent with HP's antidepressant activity, no single mechanism of action underlying these effects has thus far been found. Various clinical trials have shown that HP has a comparable antidepressant efficacy as some currently used antidepressant drugs in the treatment of mild/moderate depression. Interestingly, low-hyperforin-content preparations are effective in the treatment of depression. Moreover, HP is also used to treat certain forms of anxiety. However, HP can induce various cytochrome P450s isozymes and/or P-glycoprotein, of which many drugs are substrates and which are the main origin of HP-drug interactions. Here, we analyse the existing evidence describing the clinical consequence of HP-drug interactions. Although some of the reported interactions are based on findings from in vitro studies, the clinical importance of which remain to be demonstrated, others are based on case reports where causality can, in some cases, be determined to reveal clinically significant interactions that suggest caution, consideration, and disclosure of potential interactions prior to informed use of HP. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Phytotherapy Research 05/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5050 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: We assessed the effect of St. John's wort (SJW) on bosentan pharmacokinetics at steady-state in different CYP2C9 genotypes in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nine healthy extensive metabolizers of CYP2C9 and 4 poor metabolizers received therapeutic doses of bosentan (125 mg q.d. on study day 1; 62.5 mg b.i.d. on study day 2, 125 mg b.i.d. on study days 3 - 20) for 20 days and SJW (300 mg t.i.d.) concomitantly for the last 10 days. Bosentan pharmacokinetics was assessed on days 1, 10, and 20. Concurrently, we repeatedly quantified changes of CYP3A activity using low dosed midazolam (3 mg p.o.) as a probe drug. Results: Due to auto-induction of its metabolism, Cl/F increased by 67%, thus significantly lowering bosentan exposure (AUC) to 60% after 10 days of bosentan administration (n = 13, p < 0.05). Concurrently, midazolam clearance (CYP3A activity) increased by 224% (n = 13, p < 0.05) and further increased after SJW by 374% compared to baseline (n = 13, p < 0.05). SJW increased midazolam clearance by 47% (n = 13, p < 0.05) but failed to alter bosentan exposure and clearance consistently. No significant differences in bosentan exposure and clearance changes were observed in CYP2C9 poor metabolizers. Conclusion: SJW increased CYP3A activity but had no consistent effect on bosentan clearance. However, inter-individual changes of the interaction were large, suggesting that close monitoring of bosentan effects may be advisable. The contribution of CYP2C9 to this interaction seems to be minor.International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 01/2014; 52(04). DOI:10.5414/CP202048 · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.Medical Clinics of North America 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2014.06.009 · 2.80 Impact Factor