Perfluorinated acid isomer profiling in water and quantitative assessment of manufacturing source.
ABSTRACT A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C(7)F(15)COO(-)) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.
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ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this article is to provide an overview of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, and recommend clear, specific, and descriptive terminology, names, and acronyms for PFASs. The overarching objective is to unify and harmonize communication on PFASs by offering terminology for use by the global scientific, regulatory, and industrial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, substances related to the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, and substances intended as alternatives to the use of the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids or their precursors. First, we define PFASs, classify them into various families, and recommend a pragmatic set of common names and acronyms for both the families and their individual members. Terminology related to fluorinated polymers is an important aspect of our classification. Second, we provide a brief description of the 2 main production processes, electrochemical fluorination and telomerization, used for introducing perfluoroalkyl moieties into organic compounds, and we specify the types of byproducts (isomers and homologues) likely to arise in these processes. Third, we show how the principal families of PFASs are interrelated as industrial, environmental, or metabolic precursors or transformation products of one another. We pay particular attention to those PFASs that have the potential to be converted, by abiotic or biotic environmental processes or by human metabolism, into long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic or sulfonic acids, which are currently the focus of regulatory action. The Supplemental Data lists 42 families and subfamilies of PFASs and 268 selected individual compounds, providing recommended names and acronyms, and structural formulas, as well as Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers.Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 07/2011; 7(4):513-41.
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging persistent organic pollutant, recently receives worldwide concerns including methods for its efficient decomposition. Three kinds of nanostructured In2O3 materials including porous microspheres, nanocubes and nanoplates were obtained by dehydration of the corresponding In(OH)3 nanostructures at 500°C for 2h. The In(OH)3 nanostructures with different morphologies were solvothermally synthesized by using different mixed solvents. As-obtained In2O3 nanomaterials showed great photocatalytic activity for PFOA decomposing. The decomposition rates of PFOA by different In2O3 materials, i.e. porous microspheres, nanoplates and nanocubes were 74.7, 41.9 and 17.3 times as fast as that by P25 TiO2, respectively. The In2O3 porous microspheres showed the highest activity, by which the half-life of PFOA was shortened to 5.3min. The roles of surface oxygen vacancies on the adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of PFOA were discussed, and it was found that In2O3 materials with higher oxygen vacancy defects show better activity.Journal of hazardous materials 05/2013; 260C:40-46. · 4.14 Impact Factor