Insight into the Salivary Transcriptome and Proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima

Vector Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 4.25). 11/2010; 10(2):669-79. DOI: 10.1021/pr100866h
Source: PubMed


Dipetalogaster maxima is a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications.

Download full-text


Available from: Jaime M Santana,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The triatomine bugs are obligatory haematophagous organisms that act as vectors of Chagas disease by transmitting the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Their feeding success is strongly related to salivary proteins that allow these insects to access blood by counteracting host haemostatic mechanisms. Proteomic studies were performed on saliva from the Amazonian triatomine bugs: Rhodnius brethesi and R. robustus, species epidemiologically relevant in the transmission of T. cruzi. Initially, salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The average number of spots of the R. brethesi and R. robustus saliva samples were 129 and 135, respectively. The 2-DE profiles were very similar between the two species. Identification of spots by peptide mass fingerprinting afforded limited efficiency, since very few species-specific salivary protein sequences are available in public sequence databases. Therefore, peptide fragmentation and de novo sequencing using a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer were applied for similarity-driven identifications which generated very positive results. The data revealed mainly lipocalin-like proteins which promote blood feeding of these insects. The redundancy of saliva sequence identification suggested multiple isoforms caused by gene duplication followed by gene modification and/or post-translational modifications. In the first experimental assay, these proteins were predominantly phosphorylated, suggesting functional phosphoregulation of the lipocalins.
    Journal of proteomics 02/2011; 74(9):1652-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2011.02.022 · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Panstrongylus megistus, a vector for the Chagas disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a hematophagous bug widely distributed in South America. This ubiquitous triatomine is known to colonize different wild life habitats. Additionally, P. megistus synanthropy, preying upon mammals, birds, reptiles, and eventually being predators upon insect's hemolymph probably increases its ability to survive after prolonged fasting. It was suspected that the P. megistus mechanisms of adaptation to survival might include a salivary gland complex tool-box with a diversity of pharmacologically active proteins for obtaining blood meals. Herein we describe comprehensive proteome and transcriptome of the P. megistus salivary gland. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 159 proteins, and the transcriptome revealed 47 complete cDNAs. A diversity of protein functions associated to blood feeding was identified. The most prevalent proteins were related to blood clotting, anti-platelet aggregation and anti-vasoconstriction activities, which correlate with the insect's ability to obtain meals from different sources. Moreover, a gene of resistance to insecticides was identified. These features augments the comprehension towards P. megistus enormous capacity to survive in adverse wild life-changing habitats.
    Journal of proteomics 05/2011; 74(9):1693-700. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2011.04.028 · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel family of RGD-containing molecules (Tablysin-15) has been molecularly characterised from the salivary gland of the haematophagous horsefly Tabanus yao. Tablysin-15 does not share primary sequence homology to any disintegrin discovered so far, and displays an RGD motif in the N-terminus of the molecule. It is also distinct from disintegrins from Viperidae since its mature form is not released from a metalloproteinase precursor. Tablysin-15 exhibits high affinity binding for platelet αIIbβ3 and endothelial cell αVβ3 integrins, but not for α5β1 or α2β1. Accordingly, it blocks endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin (IC50 ~1 nM) and marginally to fibronectin (IC50 ~1 μM), but not to collagen. It also inhibits fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and attenuates tube formation in vitro. In platelets, Tablysin-15 inhibits aggregation induced by collagen, ADP and convulxin, and prevents static platelet adhesion to immobilised fibrinogen. In addition, solid-phase assays and flow cytometry demonstrates that αIIbβ3 binds to Tablysin-15. Moreover, immobilised Tablysin-15 supports platelet adhesion by a mechanism which was blocked by anti-integrin αIIbβ3 monoclonal antibody (e.g. abciximab) or by EDTA. Furthermore, Tablysin-15 dose-dependently attenuates thrombus formation to collagen under flow. Consistent with these findings, Tablysin-15 displays antithrombotic properties in vivo suggesting that it is a useful tool to block αIIbβ3, or as a prototype to develop antithrombotics. The RGD motif in the unique sequence of Tablysin-15 represents a novel template for studying the structure-function relationship of the disintegrin family of inhibitors.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2011; 105(6):1032-45. DOI:10.1160/TH11-01-0029 · 4.98 Impact Factor
Show more