Prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS among drug-using populations: a global perspective.

From the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.39). 12/2010; 55 Suppl 1:S1-4. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181f9c120
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: This report summarizes current (as of 2011) guidelines or recommendations published by multiple agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) for prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) for persons who use drugs illicitly. It also summarizes existing evidence of effectiveness for practices to support delivery of integrated prevention services. Implementing integrated services for prevention of HIV infection, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB is intended to provide persons who use drugs illicitly with increased access to services, to improve timeliness of service delivery, and to increase effectiveness of efforts to prevent infectious diseases that share common risk factors, behaviors, and social determinants. This guidance is intended for use by decision makers (e.g., local and federal agencies and leaders and managers of prevention and treatment services), health-care providers, social service providers, and prevention and treatment support groups. Consolidated guidance can strengthen efforts of health-care providers and public health providers to prevent and treat infectious diseases and substance use and mental disorders, use resources efficiently, and improve health-care services and outcomes in persons who use drugs illicitly. An integrated approach to service delivery for persons who use drugs incorporates recommended science-based public health strategies, including 1) prevention and treatment of substance use and mental disorders; 2) outreach programs; 3) risk assessment for illicit use of drugs; 4) risk assessment for infectious diseases; 5) screening, diagnosis, and counseling for infectious diseases; 6) vaccination; 7) prevention of mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases; 8) interventions for reduction of risk behaviors; 9) partner services and contact follow-up; 10) referrals and linkage to care; 11) medical treatment for infectious diseases; and 12) delivery of integrated prevention services. These strategies are science-based, public health strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases, substance use disorders, and mental disorders. Treatment of infectious diseases and treatment of substance use and mental disorders contribute to prevention of transmission of infectious diseases. Integrating prevention services can increase access to and timeliness of prevention and treatment.
    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 11/2012; 61(5):1-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To successfully implement the Seek, Test, and Treat (STT) strategy to curb the HIV epidemic, the criminal justice system must be a key partner. Increasing HIV testing and treatment among incarcerated persons has the potential to decrease HIV transmission in the broader community, but whether it is feasible to consider the implementation of the STT within jail facilities is not known. We conducted a retrospective review of Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) medical records to assess whether persons newly diagnosed in the jail were able to start ART and be linked to community HIV care after release. From 2001 to 2007, 64 RIDOC detainees were newly diagnosed with HIV. During their index incarcerations, 64% were informed of positive confirmatory HIV test results, 50% completed baseline evaluations, and 9% began ART. Linkage to community care was confirmed for 58% of subjects. Subjects incarcerated for >14 days were significantly more likely to receive HIV test results and complete baseline evaluation (p<0.001). A similar association was not observed for ART initiation until incarceration length reached 60 days (p<0.001). There was no association between incarceration length and linkage to care. This comprehensive analysis demonstrates that length of incarceration impacts HIV test result delivery, baseline evaluation, and ART initiation in the RIDOC. Jails are an important venue to "Seek" and "Test"; however, completing the "Treat" part of the STT strategy is hindered by the transient nature of this criminal justice population and may require new strategies to improve linkage to care.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 03/2014; DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0357 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services, including the level of outreach provided to the community. The current study examines how directors’ interactions with external stakeholders affect substance abuse treatment units’ provision of community outreach services. Methods: Cross-sectional logistic and Poisson regression analyses were conducted on a national sample of US outpatient substance abuse treatment units (N = 547). Results: Findings suggest that the amount of time directors spent with licensing and monitoring associations was associated with provision of a greater number of community outreach services, while time spent with professional and occupational associations was associated with provision of off-site human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C testing. Several other director attributes and organizational characteristics also emerged as significant. Conclusions: External stakeholders with whom substance abuse treatment directors interact may influence community outreach through their effects on treatment directors’ strategic priorities. Implications for policy and prevention efforts are discussed.
    Drugs Education Prevention & Policy 04/2013; 20(2). DOI:10.3109/09687637.2012.703261 · 0.53 Impact Factor


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