Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Korean women.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk according to menopausal and hormone receptor status among Korean women. In a study with 357 cases and 357 age-matched controls, dietary patterns (vegetable-seafood and meat-starch) were derived via principle component analysis based on 39 food groups from a food frequency questionnaire. The relation between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk was assessed by using multivariate logistic regression. The vegetable-seafood pattern was inversely associated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for high vs. low intake = 0.14 (0.08-0.25); P for trend < 0.001]. No association between the meat-starch pattern and breast cancer risk was found. The association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk was not modified by menopausal and combined hormone receptor status. These findings indicate that a diet rich in vegetables and seafood is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk in Korean women.
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ABSTRACT: International comparisons and case-control studies have suggested a positive relation between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk, but prospective studies, most of them involving postmenopausal women, have not supported this association. We conducted a prospective analysis of the relation between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II. Dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk were assessed among 90 655 premenopausal women aged 26 to 46 years in 1991. Fat intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1991 and again in 1995. Breast cancers were self-reported and confirmed by review of pathology reports. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. During 8 years of follow-up, 714 women developed incident invasive breast cancer. Relative to women in the lowest quintile of fat intake, women in the highest quintile of intake had a slight increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.59; P(trend) =.06). The increase was associated with intake of animal fat but not vegetable fat; RRs for the increasing quintiles of animal fat intake were 1.00 (referent), 1.28, 1.37, 1.54, and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.73; P(trend) =.002). Intakes of both saturated and monounsaturated fat were related to modestly elevated breast cancer risk. Among food groups contributing to animal fat, red meat and high-fat dairy foods were each associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Intake of animal fat, mainly from red meat and high-fat dairy foods, during premenopausal years is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 08/2003; 95(14):1079-85. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although it is believed that fish omega-3 fatty acids may decrease breast cancer risk, epidemiological evidence has been inconclusive. This study examined the association between fish and fish omega-3 fatty acids intake with the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study of Korean women. We recruited 358 incident breast cancer patients and 360 controls with no history of malignant neoplasm from the National Cancer Center Hospital between July 2007 and April 2008. The study participants were given a 103-item food intake frequency questionnaire to determine their dietary consumption of fish (fatty and lean fish) and omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, high intake of fatty fish was associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women (OR [95% CI] for highest vs. lowest intake quartiles, p for trend: 0.19 [0.08 to 0.45], p < 0.001 for premenopausal women, 0.27 [0.11 to 0.66], p = 0.005 for postmenopausal women). Similarly, reductions in breast cancer risk were observed among postmenopausal subjects who consumed more than 0.101 g of EPA (OR [95% CI]: 0.38 [0.15 to 0.96]) and 0.213 g of DHA (OR [95% CI]: 0.32 [0.13 to 0.82]) from fish per day compared to the reference group who consumed less than 0.014 g of EPA and 0.037 g of DHA per day. Among premenopausal women, there was a significant reduction in breast cancer risk for the highest intake quartiles of omega-3 fatty acids (ORs [95% CI]: 0.46 [0.22 to 0.96]), compared to the reference group who consumed the lowest quartile of intake. These results suggest that high consumption of fatty fish is associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer, and that the intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish is inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk.BMC Cancer 07/2009; 9:216. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In several epidemiologic investigations, folate intake has appeared to reduce the elevated risk of breast cancer associated with moderate alcohol consumption. However, data relating plasma folate levels to breast cancer risk are sparse. We investigated the association between plasma folate and other vitamins with breast cancer in a prospective, nested case-control study. Blood samples were obtained during 1989 and 1990 from 32 826 women in the Nurses' Health Study who were followed through 1996 for the development of breast cancer. We identified 712 breast cancer case patients and selected 712 individually matched control subjects. Dietary information was obtained using food frequency questionnaires given in 1980, 1984, 1986, and 1990. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of breast cancer (after adjustment for potential risk factors), and a generalized linear model was used to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficients between plasma estimates of folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), and homocysteine, and intakes of folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12). All statistical tests were two-sided. The multivariable RR comparing women in the highest quintile of plasma folate with those in the lowest was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50 to 1.07; P(trend) =.06). The inverse association between plasma folate and breast cancer risk was highly statistically significant among women consuming at least 15 g/day (i.e., approximately 1 drink/day) of alcohol (multivariable RR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.59 for highest versus lowest quintile) in contrast with that of women consuming less than 15 g/day (multivariable RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.49 to 1.05). The multivariable RR comparing women in the highest quintile of plasma vitamin B(6) levels with those in the lowest quintile was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.48 to 1.02; P(trend) =.09). Plasma vitamin B(12) levels were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women (multivariable RR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.86 for highest versus lowest quintile) but not among postmenopausal women. Plasma homocysteine was not associated with breast cancer risk. Higher plasma levels of folate and possibly vitamin B(6) may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Achieving adequate circulating levels of folate may be particularly important for women at higher risk of developing breast cancer because of higher alcohol consumption.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 04/2003; 95(5):373-80. · 14.34 Impact Factor