Characterization of tracheal intubation process of care and safety outcomes in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit
ABSTRACT To characterize tracheal intubation process of care and safety outcomes in a large tertiary pediatric intensive care unit using a pediatric adaptation of the National Emergency Airway Registry. Variances in process of care and safety outcome of intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit have not been described. We hypothesize that tracheal intubation is a common but high-risk procedure and that the novel pediatric adaptation of the National Emergency Airway Registry is a feasible tool to capture variances in process of care and outcomes.
Prospective descriptive study.
A single 45-bed tertiary noncardiac pediatric intensive care unit in a large university-affiliated children's hospital.
Critically ill children who required intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit.
Airway management data were prospectively collected for all initial airway management from July 2007 through September 2008 using the National Emergency Airway Registry tool tailored for pediatric application with explicit operational definitions.
One hundred ninety-seven initial intubation encounters were reported (averaging one every 2.3 days). The first course intubation method was oral intubation in 181 (91.9%) and nasal in 16 (9.1%). Unwanted tracheal intubation-associated events were frequently reported (n = 38 [19.3%]), but severe tracheal intubation-associated events were rare (n = 6 [3.0%]). Esophageal intubation with immediate recognition was the most common tracheal intubation-associated event (n = 22). Desaturation <80% was reported in 51 of 183 (27.7%) and more than two intubation attempts in 30 of 196 (15.3%), both associated with occurrence of a tracheal intubation-associated event (p < .001, p = .001, respectively). Interestingly, patient age, history of difficult airway, and first attempt by resident were not associated with tracheal intubation-associated events.
Unwanted tracheal intubation-associated events occurred frequently, but severe tracheal intubation-associated events were rare. Our novel registry can be used to describe the pediatric intensive care unit tracheal intubation procedural process of care and safety outcomes.
Pediatric Anesthesia 12/2014; 24(12). DOI:10.1111/pan.12554 · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tracheal intubation in PICUs is associated with adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. Patient, provider, and practice factors have been associated with tracheal intubation-associated events; however, site-level variance and the association of site-level characteristics on tracheal intubation-associated event outcomes are unknown. We hypothesize that site-level variance exists in the prevalence of tracheal intubation-associated events and that site characteristics may affect outcomes. Prospective observational cohort study. Fifteen PICUs in North America. Critically ill pediatric patients requiring tracheal intubation. None. Tracheal intubation quality improvement data were collected in 15 PICUs from July 2010 to December 2011 using a National Emergency Airway Registry for Children with robust site-specific compliance. Tracheal intubation-associated events and severe tracheal intubation-associated events were explicitly defined a priori. We analyzed the association of site-level variance with tracheal intubation-associated events using univariate analysis and adjusted for previously identified patient- and provider-level risk factors. Analysis of 1,720 consecutive intubations revealed an overall prevalence of 20% tracheal intubation-associated events and 6.5% severe tracheal intubation-associated events, with considerable site variability ranging from 0% to 44% tracheal intubation-associated events and from 0% to 20% severe tracheal intubation-associated events. Larger PICU size (> 26 beds) was associated with fewer tracheal intubation-associated events (18% vs 23%, p = 0.006), but the presence of a fellowship program was not (20% vs 18%, p = 0.58). After adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, both PICU size and fellowship presence were not associated with tracheal intubation-associated events (p = 0.44 and p = 0.18, respectively). Presence of mixed ICU with cardiac surgery was independently associated with a higher prevalence of tracheal intubation-associated events (25% vs 15%; p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.29-2.53; p = 0.01). Substantial site-level variance was observed in medication use, which was not explained by patient characteristic differences. Substantial site-level variance exists in tracheal intubation practice, tracheal intubation-associated events, and severe tracheal intubation-associated events. Neither PICU size nor fellowship training program explained site-level variance. Interventions to reduce tracheal intubation-associated event prevalence and severity will likely need to be contextualized to variability in individual ICUs patients, providers, and practice.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 03/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000120 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence and associated risk factors of difficult tracheal intubations (TI) in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS), TI quality improvement data were prospectively collected for initial TIs in 15 PICUs from July 2010 to December 2011. Difficult pediatric TI was defined as TIs by direct laryngoscopy which failed or required more than two laryngoscopy attempts by fellow/attending-level physician providers. A total of 1,516 oral TIs were reported with a median age of 2 years. A total of 97 % of patients were intubated with direct laryngoscopy. The incidence of difficult TI was 9 %. In univariate analysis, patients with difficult TI were younger [median 1 year (0-4) vs. 2 (0-8) years, p = 0.046], and had a reported history of difficult TI (22 vs. 8 %, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that history of difficult airway and signs of upper airway obstruction are significantly associated with difficult TI. The advanced airway provider was more involved as a first provider in difficult TI (81 vs. 58 %, p < 0.001). The presence of difficult TI was associated with higher incidence of oxygen desaturation below 80 % (48 vs. 15 %, p < 0.001), adverse TI associated events (53 vs. 20 %, p < 0.001), and severe TI associated events (13 vs. 6 %, p = 0.003). Difficult TI was reported in 9 % of all TIs and was associated with increased adverse TI events. History of difficult airway and sign of upper airway obstruction were associated with difficult TIs.Intensive Care Medicine 08/2014; 40(11). DOI:10.1007/s00134-014-3407-4 · 5.54 Impact Factor