CENP-U cooperates with Hec1 to orchestrate kinetochore-microtubule attachment.
ABSTRACT Mitosis is an orchestration of dynamic interaction between chromosomes and spindle microtubules by which genomic materials are equally distributed into two daughter cells. Previous studies showed that CENP-U is a constitutive centromere component essential for proper chromosome segregation. However, the precise molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we identified CENP-U as a novel interacting partner of Hec1, an evolutionarily conserved kinetochore core component essential for chromosome plasticity. Suppression of CENP-U by shRNA resulted in mitotic defects with an impaired kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Interestingly, CENP-U not only binds microtubules directly but also displays a cooperative microtubule binding activity with Hec1 in vitro. Furthermore, we showed that CENP-U is a substrate of Aurora-B. Importantly, phosphorylation of CENP-U leads to reduced kinetochore-microtubule interaction, which contributes to the error-correcting function of Aurora-B. Taken together, our results indicate that CENP-U is a novel microtubule binding protein and plays an important role in kinetochore-microtubule attachment through its interaction with Hec1.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that progresses to the critical hallmark of metastasis. In the present study, we show that the High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) protein plays a fundamental role in this process in basal-like breast cancer subtype. HMGA1 knockdown induces the mesenchymal to epithelial transition and dramatically decreases stemness and self-renewal. Notably, HMGA1 depletion in basal-like breast cancer cell lines reduced migration and invasion in vitro and the formation of metastases in vivo. Mechanistically, HMGA1 activated stemness and key migration-associated genes which were linked to the Wnt/beta-catenin, Notch and Pin1/mutant p53 signalling pathways. Moreover, we identified a specific HMGA1 gene expression signature that was activated in a large subset of human primary breast tumours and was associated with poor prognosis. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the role of HMGA1 in the acquisition of aggressive features in breast cancer.Oncotarget 07/2013; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The kinetochore, the proteinaceous structure on the mitotic centromere, functions as a mechanical latch that hooks onto microtubules to support directional movement of chromosomes. The structure also brings in a number of signaling molecules, such as kinases and phosphatases, which regulate microtubule dynamics and cell cycle progression. Erroneous microtubule attachment is destabilized by Aurora B-mediated phosphorylation of multiple microtubule-binding protein complexes at the kinetochore, such as the KMN network proteins and the Ska/Dam1 complex, while Plk-dependent phosphorylation of BubR1 stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachment by recruiting PP2A-B56. Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) signaling, which is activated by unattached kinetochores and inhibits the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, depends on kinetochore recruitment of the kinase Bub1 through Mps1-mediated phosphorylation of the kinetochore protein KNL1 (also known as Blinkin in mammals, Spc105 in budding yeast, and Spc7 in fission yeast). Recruitment of protein phosphatase 1 to KNL1 is necessary to silence the SAC upon bioriented microtubule attachment. One of the key unsolved questions in the mitosis field is how a mechanical change at the kinetochore upon microtubule attachment is converted to these and other chemical signals that control microtubule attachment and the SAC. Rapid progress in the field is revealing the existence of an intricate signaling network created right on the kinetochore. Here we review the current understanding of phosphorylation-mediated regulation of kinetochore functions and discuss how this signaling network generates an accurate switch that turns on and off the signaling output in response to kinetochore-microtubule attachment.Chromosoma 03/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The microtubule cytoskeleton network orchestrates cellular dynamics and chromosome stability in mitosis. Although tubulin acetylation is essential for cellular plasticity, it has remained elusive how kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by PCAF acetylation in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the plus-end tracking protein, TIP150, regulates dynamic kinetochore-microtubule attachments by promoting the stability of spindle microtubule plus-ends. Suppression of TIP150 by siRNA results in metaphase alignment delays and perturbations in chromosome biorientation. TIP150 is a tetramer that binds an end-binding protein (EB1) dimer through the C-terminal domains, and over-expression of the C-terminal TIP150 or disruption of the TIP150-EB1 interface by a membrane-permeable peptide perturbs chromosome segregation. Acetylation of EB1-PCAF regulates the TIP150 interaction, and persistent acetylation perturbs EB1-TIP150 interaction and accurate metaphase alignment, resulting in spindle checkpoint activation. Suppression of the mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase, BubR1, overrides mitotic arrest induced by impaired EB1-TIP150 interaction, but cells exhibit whole chromosome aneuploidy. Thus, the results identify a mechanism by which the TIP150-EB1 interaction governs kinetochore microtubule plus-end plasticity and establish that the temporal control of the TIP150-EB1 interaction by PCAF acetylation ensures chromosome stability in mitosis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor