Predictors of recovery from psychosis Analyses of clinical and social factors associated with recovery among patients with first-episode psychosis after 5 years.
ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the predictors of good outcome after first-episode non-affective psychosis and the clinical and social trajectories of those that recover.
A cohort of 255 patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis was interviewed 5 years after first diagnosis and treatment. Recovery was defined as working or studying, having a GAF-function score of 60 or above, having remission of negative and psychotic symptoms, and not living in a supported housing facility or being hospitalized during the last 2 years before the five-year follow-up interview.
A total of 40 (15.7%) were found to be recovered, and 76 (29.8%) had a job or were studying after 5 years. Of those working, as many as 20 still had psychotic symptoms. Also notable is that out of the 40 recovered, less than half were recovered after 2 years. Recovery after 5 years was predicted by female sex (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.8), higher age (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83-0.99), pre-morbid social adaptation (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93), growing up with both parents (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.8) and low level of negative symptoms (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.77) at baseline.
Our findings suggest that a stable social life with normal social functioning has a predictive value for good outcome. These measures might be influenced by negative symptoms, but in the multivariate analysis with negative symptoms included they have an independent effect. Also our findings suggest that, after first-episode psychosis, some patients can still experience psychotic symptoms, but have a job and a fairly stable life.
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ABSTRACT: The search for clinical outcome predictors for schizophrenia is as old as the field of psychiatry. However, despite a wealth of large, longitudinal studies into prognostic factors, only very few clinically useful outcome predictors have been identified. The goal of future treatment is to either affect modifiable risk factors, or use nonmodifiable factors to parse patients into therapeutically meaningful subgroups. Most clinical outcome predictors are nonspecific and/or nonmodifiable. Nonmodifiable predictors for poor odds of remission include male sex, younger age at disease onset, poor premorbid adjustment, and severe baseline psychopathology. Modifiable risk factors for poor therapeutic outcomes that clinicians can act upon include longer duration of untreated illness, nonadherence to antipsychotics, comorbidities (especially substance-use disorders), lack of early antipsychotic response, and lack of improvement with non-clozapine antipsychotics, predicting clozapine response. It is hoped that this limited capacity for prediction will improve as pathophysiological understanding increases and/or new treatments for specific aspects of schizophrenia become available.Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 12/2014; 16(4):505-24.
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ABSTRACT: Specialized Early Intervention services (SEI) for first episode psychosis are shown to be effective for the treatment of positive and negative symptoms, medication adherence, rates of relapse, substance abuse disorders, functional outcome and quality of life at two-year treatment follow up. However, it is also reported that these benefits are not maintained when SEI is not sustained. The objective of this trial is to test the efficacy of a 3-year extension of a SEI service (following 2 years of SEI prior to randomization) for the maintenance and consolidation of therapeutic gains as compared to regular care in the community. Following an initial 2 years of SEI, patients are randomized to receive either 3-years of continued SEI or regular care. SEI provided at three sites within the McGill network of SEI services, using a model of treatment comprised of: modified assertive case management; psycho education for families; multiple family intervention; cognitive behavioural therapy; and substance abuse treatment and monitoring. Blinded research assistants conduct ongoing evaluation of the outcome variables every three months. The primary outcome measure is remission status measured both as the proportion of patients in complete remission and the mean length of remission achieved following randomization during the additional three years of follow up. Based on preliminary data, it is determined that a total of 212 patients are needed to achieve adequate statistical power. Intent to treat with the last observation carried forward will be the primary method of statistical analysis. The "critical period" hypothesis posits that there is a five year window during which the effects of the nascent psychotic illness can be countered and the impact of the disorder on symptomatic and functional outcomes can be offset through active and sustained treatment. Providing SEI throughout this critical period may solidify the benefits of treatment such that gains may be more sustainable over time as compared to intervention delivered for a shorter period. Findings from this study will have implications for service provision in first episode psychosis. ISRCTN11889976.BMC Psychiatry 12/2015; 15(1):404. DOI:10.1186/s12888-015-0404-2 · 2.24 Impact Factor
Avances en Psicología Clínica, Edited by Raul Quevedo, Victor J Quevedo, 01/2012: chapter Estilos de recuperación psicológica de la psicosis: pages 676-680; Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual.