Article

The expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life

University of North Carolina at Greensboro, United States.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.71). 11/2010; 130(1-2):166-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bipolar psychopathology has traditionally been defined by categorical diagnoses. However, these disorders may simply reflect the extremes of a broader spectrum of clinical and subclinical bipolar psychopathology.
The present study examined the validity of the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) as a measure of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in 305 young adults using experience sampling methodology. The participants completed the HPS and were signaled randomly eight times daily for seven days to complete brief questionnaires on their current experiences.
High HPS scores were associated with elevated energetic-enthusiasm, irritability, dysphoria, flight of ideas, mild grandiose beliefs, and risky behavior, as well as increased variability in affect in daily life. High HPS scores were also associated with greater reactivity in negative affect and behavior in response to viewing themselves as unsuccessful in their activities.
It is not clear to what extent the participants had diagnosable bipolar disorders.
The findings support a broader spectrum of bipolar psychopathology and the validity of the HPS as a measure of this construct.

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Available from: Thomas Kwapil, Mar 14, 2014
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    • "This spectrum includes subclinical symptoms of dysregulated mood, cognition, behavior, and sense of self (Angst et al., 2003; Walsh, Royal, Brown, Barrantes-Vidal, & Kwapil, 2012). For example, Kwapil et al. (2011) assessed the expression of subclinical bipolar spectrum traits in daily life and found associations with elevated energy-enthusiasm, irritability, dysphoria, flight of ideas, mild grandiose beliefs, risky behavior, and variability in affect. Those who experience subclinical symptoms may suffer impairment and distress (Angst et al., 2003) and are at heightened risk for the development of clinical bipolar disorders (Kwapil et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) is used to investigate hypomanic traits and risk for bipolar spectrum disorders; however, the length of the HPS (48 items) may be prohibitive for clinical research and screening purposes. Meads and Bentall (2008) developed a promising 20-item version of the HPS; however, the psychometric properties and validity of the short form have not been thoroughly examined. The present study investigated the construct validity and psychometric properties of the short HPS. A sample of 2713 non-clinically ascertained young adults was used to assess psychometric properties of the short form relative to the original scale. Two non-overlapping subsamples (n = 522; n = 145) were used to investigate the validity of the short HPS using personality and temperament questionnaires and clinical interviews of bipolar psychopathology and diagnoses. The short and original HPS generally had comparable correlations with measures of temperament, personality, impulsivity, borderline personality, grandiosity, psychosocial functioning, and alcohol use, and comparably predicted DSM bipolar and bipolar spectrum diagnoses. Overall, the short HPS was found to be both reliable and valid. However, the short HPS tended to be more strongly correlated with pathological components of hypomanic personality and less strongly correlated with exuberant and potentially adaptive aspects of the construct.
    Personality and Individual Differences 03/2015; 82:52-57. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.004 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "At Level 2, we estimated a main effect of hypomania, measured with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (Eckblad & Chapman, 1986), on PA (shown as the path from Hypomania to PA Intercept), as well as a cross-level interaction between solitude and hypomania (shown as a path from Hypomania to PA Slope). The Hypomanic Personality Scale measures a continuum of traitlike variability in bipolar spectrum psychopathology (see Kwapil et al., 2011). Hypomania was grand-mean centered using the observed scores. "
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    ABSTRACT: Experience-sampling research involves trade-offs between the number of questions asked per signal, the number of signals per day, and the number of days. By combining planned missing-data designs and multilevel latent variable modeling, we show how to reduce the items per signal without reducing the number of items. After illustrating different designs using real data, we present two Monte Carlo studies that explored the performance of planned missing-data designs across different within-person and between-person sample sizes and across different patterns of response rates. The missing-data designs yielded unbiased parameter estimates but slightly higher standard errors. With realistic sample sizes, even designs with extensive missingness performed well, so these methods are promising additions to an experience-sampler's toolbox.
    Behavior Research Methods 05/2013; 46(1). DOI:10.3758/s13428-013-0353-y · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    • "To assess promotion or prevention goal focus, two items asked the respondent to rate the extent to which the most important goal of the day involved trying to make something good happen (promotion) or involved trying to keep something bad from happening (prevention). The affect domain included four positive (happy, proud, satisfied , enthusiastic) and four negative (sad, anxious, guilty, feel like a failure) items, several of which have been used in previous experience sampling studies (e.g., Kwapil et al., 2011). We intentionally included items that reflected self-evaluative emotions, which might be particularly relevant in daily self-regulation. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the moderating effects of motivational orientation on daily affect and goal pursuit. Based on recent revisions to Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, measures of BIS (BIS-r and Fight-Flight-Freeze System or FFFS), BAS, and regulatory focus (Promotion and Prevention) were administered to 84 college students who participated in a 14-day diary study. Diary items assessed goal-directed activities and positive and negative affect (PA and NA). Results showed that higher FFFS and Promotion were consistently associated with higher NA and PA, respectively, and FFFS was also associated with avoidance of responsibilities. Higher Promotion predicted greater daily goal progress and tendencies to rate goals as more promotion- and prevention-focused. Relationships between daily goal-directed activities and both sadness and satisfaction were moderated by BIS-r. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, low BAS Reward Responsiveness predicted increased enthusiasm with greater goal progress. A trend in the data showed evidence of regulatory fit in daily activities predicted by both Promotion and Prevention. Implications for the theoretical and practical distinctions between measures of motivational orientation are discussed.
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