Temporal and spatial diversification of Pteroglossus araçaris (AVES: Ramphastidae) in the neotropics: Constant rate of diversification does not support an increase in radiation during the Pleistocene

Department of Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 3.92). 11/2010; 58(1):105-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.10.016
Source: PubMed


We use the small-bodied toucan genus Pteroglossus to test hypotheses about diversification in the lowland Neotropics. We sequenced three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron from all Pteroglossus species and used these data to reconstruct phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses. These phylogenetic trees were used to make inferences regarding both the pattern and timing of diversification for the group. We used the uplift of the Talamanca highlands of Costa Rica and western Panama as a geologic calibration for estimating divergence times on the Pteroglossus tree and compared these results with a standard molecular clock calibration. Then, we used likelihood methods to model the rate of diversification. Based on our analyses, the onset of the Pteroglossus radiation predates the Pleistocene, which has been predicted to have played a pivotal role in diversification in the Amazon rainforest biota. We found a constant rate of diversification in Pteroglossus evolutionary history, and thus no support that events during the Pleistocene caused an increase in diversification. We compare our data to other avian phylogenies to better understand major biogeographic events in the Neotropics. These comparisons support recurring forest connections between the Amazonian and Atlantic forests, and the splitting of cis/trans Andean species after the final uplift of the Andes. At the subspecies level, there is evidence for reciprocal monophyly and groups are often separated by major rivers, demonstrating the important role of rivers in causing or maintaining divergence. Because some of the results presented here conflict with current taxonomy of Pteroglossus, new taxonomic arrangements are suggested.

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    • "We choose to use the nuclear b-fibint7 because it has proven useful to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic patterns of several avian species (e.g. Derryberry et al., 2011; Patel et al., 2011; Prychitko and Moore, 1997; Ribas et al., 2012). Amplification and sequencing of the ND2 fragments required an internal primer specifically designed for this study (ND2xg; Table 2). "
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    • "Despite the large number of distinct hypotheses to explain Amazonian biodiversity (e.g., refuge hypothesis, Haffer, 1969; riverine hypothesis, Wallace, 1852; Ayres and Clutton-Brock, 1992; riverine-refuge hypothesis, Ayres and Clutton-Brock, 1992; Haffer, 1993, 2001; ecological gradients hypothesis, Endler, 1977; ''museum'' hypothesis, Roy et al., 1997; and marine incursions, Bates, 2001), and the common sense that many causations have operated for the formation of such diversity (Bush, 1994; Haffer, 2001; Miller et al., 2008), recent phylogeographic and paleobiogeographic reconstructions (Aleixo and Rossetti 2007; Patel et al., 2011; Weir and Price, 2011; Ribas et al., 2012) have postulated the formation of the current Amazonian physical landscape as the main source of cladogenetic events among the studied lineages. "
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    • "The diversification analysis indicated a best topological-fit to a diversity-dependent model (c and AIC RC ; Tables 2 and 3) and a slight decrease of the diversification rates within Conopophaga (see lineage through time plot in Fig. 3). However, such decrease of diversification in Conopophaga is not in accordance with other Neotropical groups that exhibited a pattern of constant diversification rate through the late Tertiary to Quaternary (Derryberry et al., 2011; d'Horta et al., 2013; Patel et al., 2011). Our diversification result thus corroborates the relictual status of Conopophaga, which seems to have filled a limited ecological space in the South America (a diversity-dependent pattern). "
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