Associations of gestational weight loss with birth-related outcome: a retrospective cohort study
ABSTRACT Although the prevention of gestational weight loss (GWL) has become a priority for clinicians in the past few decades, recent work has suggested that GWL may be beneficial for obese mothers. We aimed to identify the potential beneficial or adverse associations of GWL with pregnancy outcome stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI) category.
Retrospective cohort study.
Data on 709 575 singleton deliveries in Bavarian obstetric units from 2000-2007 were extracted from a standard dataset for which data are regularly collected for the national benchmarking of obstetric units.
We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for adverse pregnancy outcome by GWL (explanatory variable) compared with nonexcessive weight gain with adjustment for confounders and stratification by BMI category (underweight, BMI < 18.5 kg/m²; normal weight, BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m²; overweight, BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m²; obese class I, BMI = 30-34.9 kg/m²; obese class II, BMI = 35-39.9 kg/m²; obese class III, BMI ≥ 40 kg/m²).
Pre-eclampsia, nonelective caesarean section, preterm delivery, small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) birth and perinatal mortality.
GWL was associated with a decreased risk of pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and nonelective caesarean section, in overweight and obese women [e.g. OR = 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.83) for nonelective caesarean section in obese class I women]. The risks of preterm delivery and SGA births, by contrast, were significantly higher in overweight and obese class I/II mothers [e.g. OR = 1.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.06) for SGA in obese class I women]. In obese class III women, no significantly increased risks of poor outcomes for infants were observed.
The association of GWL with a decreased risk of pregnancy complications appears to be outweighed by increased risks of prematurity and SGA in all but obese class III mothers.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Andreas Beyerlein, Oct 13, 2014
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ABSTRACT: To examine the association between weight loss in obese pregnant women and relevant maternal and neonatal outcomes. All liveborn singleton term (37 weeks of gestation or greater) births in obese women between 2009 and 2011 in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) were included (N=18,053). Outcomes assessed included gestational hypertension, low (2,500 g or less) birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (less than the 10th percentile) neonates, macrosomia (birth weight 4,000 g or greater), large-for-gestational-age (greater than 90th percentile) neonates, emergency caesarean delivery, and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. Risk for adverse outcomes was calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis for weight change categories (greater weight loss [5 kg or greater], lesser weight loss [between 0 and 5 kg], low gestational weight gain [0 or greater and less than 5 kg], adequate gestational weight gain [5 or greater to 9 kg or less, reference], and excessive gestational weight gain [greater than 9 kg]) in each obesity class (I 30-34.9, II 35-39.9, III 40 or greater) adjusted for parity and maternal and gestational age. In the total population, 854 (4.7%) obese pregnant women reported weight loss. Weight loss and low weight gain were associated with a decreased incidence of gestational hypertension for women with class I obesity (greater weight loss adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.84; lesser weight loss adjusted OR 0.46 95% CI 0.21-0.99; low gain adjusted OR 0.71 95% CI 0.54-0.93), a reduction in the rate of emergency cesarean delivery, but only in those with class II obesity (greater weight loss adjusted OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.78; lesser weight loss adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.97; low gain adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.79), and decreased macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age neonates in women in all classes of obesity, with the highest decrease for women with class III obesity (greater weight loss adjusted OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.49; lesser weight loss adjusted OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.90 for macrosomia). No association between weight loss and low birth weight, small-for-gestational-age neonates, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit was shown in the different obesity classes. Weight loss in obese pregnant women was associated with reduced perinatal risks but not with the rate of low birth weight or small-for-gestational-age neonates in obese women from class III in this affluent region. Stratification of recommended gestational weight gain ranges in obese women should be considered. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2015; 125(3):1. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000677 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity and gestational weight gain impact maternal and fetal risks. Gestational weight gain guidelines are not stratified by severity of obesity. Conduct a systematic review of original research with sufficient information about gestational weight gain in obese women stratified by obesity class that could be compared to current Institute of Medicine guidelines. Evaluate variance in risk for selected outcomes of pregnancy with differing gestational weight gain in obese women by class of obesity. A keyword advanced search was conducted of English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles using 3 electronic databases, article reference lists and table of content notifications through January 2015. Data were synthesized to show changes in risk by prevalence. Ten articles met inclusion criteria. Outcomes assessed were large for gestational age, small for gestational age, and cesarean delivery. Results represent nearly 740,000 obese women from four different countries. Findings consistently demonstrated gestational weight gain varies by obesity class and most obese women gain more than recommended by Institute of Medicine guidelines. Obese women are at low risk for small for gestational age and high risk for large for gestational age and risk varies with class of obesity and gestational weight gain. Research suggests the lowest combined risk of selected outcomes with weight gain of 5-9kg in women with class I obesity, 1 to less than 5kg for class II obesity and no gestational weight gain for women with class III obesity. Gestational weight gain guidelines may need modification for severity of obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Women and Birth 04/2015; 384. DOI:10.1016/j.wombi.2015.03.006 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. Both are related to childhood obesity. This study considers that the patterns of gestational weight gain (GWG) may help to disentangle these competing risks.Methods Patterns of GWG were characterized among a cohort of women with overweight or obesity (n = 651). Polytomous logistic regression models were tested for associations between GWG patterns and birth weight outcomes: SGA (<10th) and LGA (>90th percentile).ResultsRates of SGA were higher than those for LGA (14.9% vs. 7.8%). Four GWG patterns were identified: consistently high (29%), early adequate/late high (33%), consistently adequate (18%), and consistently low (20%). Risk of LGA was highest in women with consistently high GWG (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.62 [1.53, 13.96]), and risk was elevated, but with lower magnitude, among women with early adequate/late high gains (OR 3.07 [1.01, 9.37]). High GWG before 20 weeks, regardless of later gain, was related to LGA. Low gain before 20 weeks accompanied by high gain later may be associated with reduced SGA risk (0.55 [0.29, 1.07]).Conclusions The pattern of weight gain during pregnancy may be an important contributor to or marker of abnormal fetal growth among women with overweight or obesity.Obesity 04/2015; 23(5). DOI:10.1002/oby.21006 · 4.39 Impact Factor