Article

Mechanisms of macromolecular protease inhibitors.

Graduate Group in Biophysics, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-2240, USA.
ChemBioChem (Impact Factor: 3.06). 11/2010; 11(17):2341-6. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201000442
Source: PubMed

Full-text

Available from: Charles S Craik, May 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
76 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Matriptase-2 is a type II transmembrane serine protease controlling the expression of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. By cleaving hemojuvelin, matriptase-2 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein/sons of mothers against decapentaplegic signaling. So far, the only known putative substrates of matriptase-2 are hemojuvelin and matriptase-2 itself. In this study, fetuin-A (α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein) was identified in vitro as a substrate of matriptase-2. The protease-substrate interaction was validated by isolating matriptase-2 via the affinity to fetuin-A. Fetuin-A is a liver-derived plasma protein with multiple functions, which is proteolytically processed to yield a disulfide-linked two-chain form. In co-transfected cells, a matriptase-2-dependent conversion of unprocessed fetuin-A into a two-chain form was detected. Conversely, downregulation of endogenously expressed matriptase-2 stabilized fetuin-A. Arg and Lys residues located within the 40 residue spanning connecting peptide of fetuin-A were identified as cleavage sites for matriptase-2. Analysis of hepcidin expression revealed an inductive effect of fetuin-A, which was abolished by matriptase-2. Fetuin-A deficiency in mice resulted in decreased hepcidin mRNA levels. These findings implicate a role of fetuin-A in iron homeostasis and provide new insights into the mechanism of how matriptase-2 might modulate hepcidin expression.
    Biological Chemistry 09/2014; 396(1). DOI:10.1515/hsz-2014-0120 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Falcipain-2 (FP-2) is a member of papain family of cysteine proteases and the major hemoglobinase of the hemoglobin detoxification and hemozoin polymerization complex localized in the food vacuole of the plasmodium species. FP-2 is currently gaining clinical significance as the drug target of choice in combating malaria epidemic. Here, a theoretical FP-2/hemoglobin complex has been proposed and the dynamical footprint and energetics of binding have been investigated using molecular and quantum mechanics approaches. The mapped interaction interface comprises residues 34-51 of hemoglobin and cysteine-42/histidine-174/glutamine-36/asparagine-173/204 and subsites S1, S1', and S3 of FP-2. In hemoglobin-bound FP-2, asparagine-173 preferentially partners histidine-174, while glutamine-36 is preferred in ligand-free state. Cysteine-42 exhibits dihedral switch from 110° to 30° in free and bound states, respectively, with exclusion of water from the binding core upon hemoglobin binding. Hemoglobin similarly exhibits high occupancy within .2 nm distance with charged amido acid-rich subsites S1 and S3 of FP-2 functioning in tandem to reduce conformational flexibility of hemoglobin and facilitate the formation of a stabilizing anti-parallel β-sheet between Leucine-172-valine-176 of FP-2 and phenylalanine-45-asparate-47 of hemoglobin and to overcome the + 1.13e + 5 eV activation energy required to optimize the FP-2/hemoglobin-β conformation that precedes hydrolysis.
    Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 06/2014; 33(5):1-10. DOI:10.1080/07391102.2014.924878 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Caspases are proteases involved in cell death, where caspase-3 is the chief executioner that produces an irreversible cutting event in downstream protein substrates and whose activity is desired in the management of cancer. To determine such activity in clinically relevant samples with high signal-to-noise, plasmon rulers are ideal because they are sensitively affected by their interparticle separation without ambiguity from photobleaching or blinking effects. A plasmon ruler is a noble metal nanoparticle pair, tethered in close proximity to one another via a biomolecule, that acts through dipole-dipole interactions and results in the light scattering to increase exponentially. In contrast, a sharp decrease in intensity is observed when the pair is confronted by a large interparticle distance. To align the mechanism of protease activity with building a sensor that can report a binary signal in the presence or absence of caspase-3, we present a plasmon ruler composed of a pair of Zn0.4Fe2.6O4@ SiO2@Au core-shell nanoparticles connected by a selective caspase-3 cleavage sequence. The dielectric core (Zn0.4Fe2.6O4@ SiO2)-shell (Au) geometry provided a brighter scattering intensity versus solid Au nanoparticles, and the magnetic core additionally acted as a purification handle during the plasmon ruler assembly. By monitoring the decrease in light scattering intensity per plasmon ruler, we detected caspase-3 activity at single molecule resolution across a broad dynamic range. This was observed to be as low as 100 fM of recombinant material or 10 ng of total protein from cellular lysate. By thorough analyses of single molecule trajectories, we show caspase-3 activation in a drug treated chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) cancer system as early as 4 and 8 hours with greater sensitivity (2- and 4-fold, respectively) than conventional reagents. This study provides future implications for monitoring caspase-3 as a biomarker and efficacy of drugs.
    ACS Nano 08/2014; 8(9). DOI:10.1021/nn502959q · 12.03 Impact Factor