Neighborhood Protective Effects on Depression in Latinos
ABSTRACT Neighborhood social ecologies may have protective effects on depression in Latinos, after adjusting for demographic risk factors, such as nativity and length of stay in the US. This study examines the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and linguistic isolation on depression in a heterogeneous urban Latino population from 1,468 adult respondents in Los Angeles County. We used multilevel models to analyze how major depression is associated with socioeconomic background, length of stay in the U.S., neighborhood collective efficacy and linguistic isolation among Latinos. A significant cross-level interaction effect was found between collective efficacy and foreign-born Latinos who resided in the US ≥ 15 years. We report cross-level interaction effects between linguistic isolation and nativity for U.S.-born and nativity and duration of residence for foreign-born Latinos who had lived in the U.S. at least 15 years. The moderating effects reported in this study suggest that the benefits of neighborhood collective efficacy and linguistic isolation vary by Latino subgroup and are conceptually discrete forms of social capital and offer insights for community based interventions.
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- "Racial segregation appears to be beneficial for the health of Asians and Hispanics in multiple dimensions including mental health (Vega et al., 2011), physical health (Osypuk et al., 2009), access to health care (Gresenz, Rogowski, & Escarce, 2009; Osypuk et al., 2009) and birth outcomes (Walton, 2009). That is, Asians and Hispanics living in a racially segregated area are more likely to have fewer depressive symptoms (Vega et al., 2011), and to have better self-reported health and fewer chronic conditions (Osypuk et al., 2009). This protective association between racial segregation and health of Asians and Hispanics is often attributed to ethnic enclaves , which may provide increased social support and social engagement among families and friends, enhance integration into the community, provide better access to educational and occupational resources, and minimize the exposure to discrimination (Berkman & Glass, 2000; Leclere, Jensen, & Biddlecom, 1994; Walton, 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women's race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy, and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy, and racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives.Social Science [?] Medicine 02/2014; 107C:26-36. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.030 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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- "Latino mental health researchers also place cultural norms front-and-center in ecological models. For example, Latinos have been found to be likely to place high value on familism (i.e., expectations to provide and receive from the family and to have hierarchical values in family relationships that uphold the respect and authority of parents (see Gonzales et al., 2011; Szapocznik & Kurtines, 1993; Vega, Ang, Rodriguez, & Finch, 2011). Latino mental health researchers are uncovering how cultural values and traditions of Latino immigrant families impact Latino family-youth relationships. "
ABSTRACT: En la actualidad, aproximadamente 190 millones de inmigrantes de todo el mundo viven en sociedades de acogida situadas en países con mayores recursos económicos y mayor poder político que los países de origen de los inmigrantes. En este artículo utilizo las teorías ecológicas y de sistemas (ecosistemas) para analizar la relación entre los inmigrantes latinos y la sociedad de acogida en los EEUU. El enfoque de ecosistemas pone de relieve que las políticas e iniciativas para abordar la asistencia sanitaria de los inmigrantes latinos deben sopesar dilemas como: (a) la contención de costes sanitarios al tiempo que se proporciona una atención de alta calidad (eficaz), y (b) la desigualdad de poder entre los inmigrantes y su sociedad de acogida. Postulo que el marco de la Justicia Social/Salud Pública es necesario para abordar estos dilemas, porque toma en consideración las necesidades de la comunidad receptora, así como de los inmigrantes y de otras poblaciones marginadas. Dicho marco concuerda con el enfoque propuesto basado en la Igualdad Sanitaria del sistema de salud de los EEUU (Braveman et al., 2011) y es relevante para el fenómeno global de la inmigración.12/2012; 21(3):305–318. DOI:10.5093/in2012a27
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- "sensitivity check, we included nativity as a modifier of the association between neighborhood context and DSM-IV substance disorders, given that it has been found to moderate the relation between neighborhood context and health outcomes (Kimbro, 2009; Lee and Ferraro, 2007; Vega et al., 2010). After adjustment of individual-level variables, significant interactions between nativity and three of our neighborhood context measures were noted Table 1 Factor loadings of census tract-level variables. "
ABSTRACT: There is evidence that ethnic/racial minorities are conferred differential risk for substance use problems based on where they live. Despite a burgeoning of research focusing on the role of neighborhood characteristics on health, limited findings are available on substance use. Our study uses nationally representative data (N=13,837) to examine: (1) what neighborhood characteristics are associated with risk of substance use disorders?; (2) do the associations between neighborhood characteristics and substance use disorders remain after adjusting for individual-level factors?; and (3) do neighborhood characteristics associated with substance use disorders differ by race/ethnicity after adjusting for individual-level factors? Data were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES-Geocode file) with 836 census tracts. Analyses included African Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino whites. Separate logistic regression models were fitted for any past-year substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, and drug use disorder. Living in more affluent and residentially unstable census tracts was associated with decreased risk of past-year substance use disorder, even after adjusting for individual-level factors. However, when we investigated the interaction of race/ethnicity and census latent factors with past-year substance use disorders, we found different associations for the different racial/ethnic groups. We also found different associations between neighborhood affluence, residential instability and any past-year substance use and alcohol disorders by nativity. Characteristics of the environment might represent differential risk for substance disorders depending on a person's ethnicity/race and nativity status.Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2012; 125 Suppl 1:S35-43. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.027 · 3.28 Impact Factor