Major adverse cardiac events and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by computed tomography coronary angiography in an outpatient population with suspected or known coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT To investigate the predictive value of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD).
Seven hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients (496 men, age 62±11 y) with suspected or known heart disease referred to an outpatient clinic underwent 64-slice CTCA. The patients were followed for the occurrence of MACE (ie, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina).
Eleven thousand five hundred and sixty-four coronary segments were assessed. Of these, 178 (1.5%) were not assessable because of insufficient image quality. Overall, CTCA revealed the absence of CAD in 219 (28.5%) patients, nonobstructive CAD (coronary plaque ≤50%) in 282 (36.8%) patients, and obstructive CAD in 266 (34.7%) patients. A total of 21 major cardiac events (4 cardiac deaths, 12 myocardial infarctions, and 5 unstable angina) occurred during a mean follow-up of 20 months. One noncardiac death occurred. Seventeen events occurred in the group of patients with obstructive CAD, and 4 events occurred in the group with nonobstructive CAD. The event rate was 0% among patients with normal coronary arteries at CTCA. In multivariate analysis, the presence of obstructive CAD and diabetes were the only independent predictors of MACE.
Coronary plaque evaluation by CTCA provides an independent prognostic value for the prediction of MACE. Patients with normal CTCA findings have an excellent prognosis at follow-up.
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ABSTRACT: The value of ≥64-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to determine odds of cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) needs further clarification. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using publications reporting events/severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with suspected CAD undergoing CCTA. Patients were divided into: no CAD, non-obstructive CAD (maximal stenosis <50%), and obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed or random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) index. We included thirty-two studies comprising 41,960 patients with 363 all-cause deaths (15.0%), 114 cardiac deaths (4.7%), 342 MI (14.2%), 69 unstable angina (2.8%), and 1527 late revascularizations (63.2%) over 1.96 (SD 0.77) years of follow-up. Cardiac death or MI occurred in 0.04% without, 1.29% with non-obstructive, and 6.53% with obstructive CAD. OR for cardiac death or MI was: 14.92 (95% CI, 6.78 to 32.85) for obstructive CAD, 6.41 (95% CI, 2.44 to 16.84) for non-obstructive CAD versus no CAD, and 3.19 (95% CI, 2.29 to 4.45) for non-obstructive versus obstructive CAD and 6.56 (95% CI, 3.07 to 14.02) for no versus any CAD. Similar trends were noted for all-cause mortality and composite major adverse cardiovascular events. Increasing CAD severity detected by CCTA is associated with cardiac death or MI, all-cause mortality, and composite major adverse cardiovascular events. Absence of CAD is associated with very low odds of major adverse events, but non-obstructive disease significantly increases odds of cardiac adverse events in this follow-up period.International journal of cardiology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.08.096 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a valuable tool for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD). Although statin use is widely recommended for persons with diabetes older than age 40, little is known about the presence and severity of CAD in younger patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary CTA in young persons with both DM1 and DM2 in an attempt to detect the earliest objective evidence of arteriosclerosis eligible for primary prevention. We prospectively enrolled 40 persons with DM (25 type 1 and 15 type 2) between the ages of 19 and 35 presenting with diabetes for 5 years or longer. All patients underwent coronary CTA and CAC scans to evaluate for early atherosclerotic disease. Each plaque in the coronary artery was classified as noncalcified or calcified-mixed. We also evaluated all segments with stenosis, dividing them into mild (<50%), moderate (50-70%), and severe (>70%). The average age of the DM1 subjects were 26 ± 4 (SD) years and 30 ± 4 years for DM2 patients (P < .01), with duration of diabetes of 8 ± 5 years and average HbA1c% of 8.7 ± 1.6 (norm = 4.6-6.2). Abnormal scans were present in 57.5%, noncalcified in 35% and calcified-mixed plaque in 22.5%. Persons with DM2 had a higher prevalence of positive coronary CTA scans than DM1: 80% versus 44% (P < .03) and more positive CAC scores 53% versus 4%, (P < .01). The total segment score of 2.1 ± 3.4 (P < .01) and total plaque score 1.9 ± 2.8 (P < .01) were highly correlated to each other. Plaque was almost uniformly absent below age 25, and became increasingly common in individuals over the age of 25 years for both groups. The average radiation exposure was 2.5 ± 1.3 mSv. Our study verifies that early CAD can be diagnosed with coronary CTA and minimal radiation exposure in young adults with DM. A negative CAC score was not sufficient to exclude early CAD as we observed a preponderance of noncalcified plaque in this cohort. Coronary CTA in young DM patients older than age 25 may provide earlier identification of disease than does a CAC because only noncalcified plaque is frequently present. Coronary CTA provides an opportunity to consider initiation of earlier primary CAD prevention rather than waiting for the age of 40 as currently recommended by the American Diabetes Association guidelines.Academic radiology 04/2012; 19(7):889-93. DOI:10.1016/j.acra.2012.03.013 · 2.08 Impact Factor
International journal of cardiology 05/2012; 158(2):299-300. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.04.116 · 6.18 Impact Factor